Volatile-Phosphorus-Free Gellants for Hydrocarbon-Based Fracturing Systems
- Sally C. Lawrence (Sanjel Corporation) | Ashley C. Kalenchuk (Sanjel Corporation) | Karena Ranicar (Sanjel Corporation) | Sukhmeet Dhillon (Sanjel Corporation) | Anela Baig (Sanjel Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 556 - 561
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2 Well Completion, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 4.3.4 Scale, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.4.3 Fines Migration, 2.2.2 Perforating, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant)
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 369 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
In recent years, a number of refineries in western Canada and the United States have discovered the formation of scale or sludge in their distillation towers. The buildup of large amounts of sludge lowers the efficiency of refineries to the point where it must be removed. The process of removing sludge requires that the refinery shut down at a cost of USD millions in lost production to the refinery operators. Analysis of the sludge has revealed that it has an extraordinarily high phosphorus content (8 to 12%). Further investigation into the origin of the phosphorus in the sludge raised concerns that chemicals used in hydrocarbon-fracturing fluids, specifically volatile-phosphorus-containing hydrocarbon gellants, are responsible for the refinery fouling. This paper will discuss how the origin of the volatile-phosphorus in the hydrocarbon gellants has been determined and how a viable, ultralow volatile phosphorus solution for hydrocarbon gelling has been developed.
Hydrocarbon-based fracturing fluids are used in water-sensitive formations, such as those with high clay content, to prevent any loss of permeability because of clay swelling or fines migration. These gels are simple to use from an operational perspective and exhibit consistent viscosity and excellent thermal stability. Problems with hydrocarbon-gelling chemicals in the downstream oil and gas industry, however, are putting pressure on the use of this technology. It is, therefore, necessary that the chemisty of gelled-hydrocarbon fluids be better understood so solutions to any potential problems with this chemistry can be found.
|File Size||343 KB||Number of Pages||6|
Burnham, J.W., Harris, L.E., and McDaniel, B.W. 1980. Developments in Hydrocarbon Fluids forHigh-Temperature Fracturing. J. Pet Tech 32 (2):217-220. SPE-7564-PA. doi: 10.2118/7564-PA.
Funkhouser, G.P. 2006. Gelled liquid hydrocarbon treatment fluids havingreduced phosphorus volatility and their associated methods of use andpreparation. US Patent No. 7,066,262.
Graham, R.L. and Perinski, L.J. 2000. Rapid gel formation in hydrocarbonrecovery. US Patent No. 6,054,417.
Hendrickson, A.R., Nesbitt, L.E., and Oakes, B.D. 1956. Soap-Oil Systems for FormationFracturing. Paper 685 presented at the Fall Meeting of the Petroleum Branchof AIME, Los Angeles, 14-17 October. doi: 10.2118/685-G.
Kennedy, B. 1999. Phosphorus in Crude Project. Project summary, CanadianCrude Quality Technical Association, Edmonton, Alberta (April 1999).
Taylor, R.S., Stemler, P.S., Lemieux, A., Funkhouser, G.P., Fyten, G.C.,Cheng, A., and Stadnyk, S. 2005. Prevention of Refinery Plugging by ResidualOil Gellant Chemicals in Crude--Optimzation of Phosphonate Ester Oil Gellants.Paper 2005-043 presented at the 6th Canadian International Petroleum Conference(CIPC), Calgary, 7-9 June.