- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Stimulating Unconventional Reservoirs: Maximizing Network Growth While Optimizing Fracture Conductivity
- N.R. Warpinski (Pinnacle - A Halliburton Service) | M.J. Mayerhofer (Pinnacle - A Halliburton Service) | M.C. Vincent (CARBO Ceramics, Inc.) | C.L. Cipolla (Schlumberger) | E.P. Lolon (StrataGen Engineering)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- October 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 39 - 51
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3.3 Well & Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring, 5.8.6 Naturally Fractured Reservoir, 5.1.8 Seismic Modelling, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.6.5 Tracers, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 1.2.3 Rock properties, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.8.3 Coal Seam Gas, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2 Well Completion, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2.5.1 Fracture design and containment
- fracture matrix, unconventional reservoirs, microseismic mapping
- 13 in the last 30 days
- 3,760 since 2007
- Show more detail
Unconventional reservoirs such as gas shales and tight gas sands require technology-based solutions for optimum development. The successful exploitation of these reservoirs has relied on some combination of horizontal drilling, multi-stage completions, innovative fracturing and fracture mapping to engineer economic completions. However, the requirements for economic production all hinge on the matrix permeability of these reservoirs, supplemented by the conductivity that can be generated in hydraulic fractures and network fracture systems. Simulations demonstrate that ultra-low shale permeabilities require an interconnected fracture network of moderate conductivity with a relatively small spacing between fractures to obtain reasonable recovery factors. Microseismic mapping demonstrates that such networks are achievable and the subsequent production from these reservoirs supports both the modelling and the mapping. Tight gas sands, having orders of magnitude greater permeability than the gas shales, may be successfully depleted without inducing complex fracture networks, but other issues of damage and zonal coverage complicate recovery in these reservoirs. As with the shales, mapping has proved itself to be valuable in assessing the fracturing results.
Unconventional reservoirs provide a significant fraction of gas production in North America and increasing amounts in some other regions of the world. Such reservoirs include tight gas sands, coalbed methane (CBM), and gas shales; in 2006 these reservoirs provided 43% of the US production of natural gas [Kuuskraa(1)]. Because of their limited permeability, which is foremost among many other complexities, some type of stimulation process (and/or dewatering in the case of CBM) is required to engender economic recovery from wells drilled into these formations. The focus of this paper is on gas shales, with particular emphasis on how these reservoirs perform relative to tight gas sands. The important role of natural fractures in both the stimulation and production processes, the importance of conductivity in the developed fracture or fracture system, and the critical influence of the matrix permeability are investigated using both mapping and modeling results.
- Kuuskraa, V.A. 2007. A Decade of Progress in Unconventional Gas (OGJUnconventional Gas Article #1). Oil & Gas Journal 105(September 3, 2007): 35.
- Montgomery, S.L., Jarvie, D.M., Bowker, K.A., and Pollastro, R.M. 2005. Mississippian Barnett Shale, FortWorth basin, north central Texas: Gas-shale play with multi-trillion cubic footpotential. AAPG Bulletin 89 (2): 155-175. doi:10.1306/09170404042.
- Morrow, N.R., Buckley, J.S., Cather, M.E., Brower, K.R., Graham, M., Ma,S., and Zhang, X. 1990. Rock Matrix and Fracture Analysis of Flow in WesternTight Gas Sands. Technical Report, No. DOE/MC/21179-2853, New Mexico Instituteof Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico (01 February 1990).
- Fisher, M.K., Wright, C.A., Davidson, B.M., Goodwin, A.K., Fielder, E.O.,Buckler, W.S., and Steinsberger, N.P. 2002. Integrating Fracture MappingTechnologies to Optimize Stimulations in the Barnett Shale. Paper SPE 77441presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio,Texas, USA, 29 September-2 October. doi: 10.2118/77441-MS.
- Maxwell, S.C., Urbancik, T.I., Steinsberger, N.P., and Zinno, R. 2002. Microseismic Imaging of HydraulicFracture Complexity in the Barnett Shale. Paper SPE 77440 presented at theSPE Annual Technology Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 29September-2 October. doi: 10.2118/77440-MS.
- Fisher, M.K., Heinze, J.R., Harris, C.D., Davidson, B.M., Wright, C.A., andDunn, K.P. 2004. OptimizingHorizontal Completion Techniques in the Barnett Shale Using MicroseismicFracture Mapping. Paper SPE 90051 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29 September. doi:10.2118/90051-MS.
- Warpinski, N.R., Wright, T.B., Uhl, J.E., Engler, B.P., Drozda, P.M.,Peterson, R.E., and Branagan, P.T. 1996. Microseismic Monitoring of the B-SandHydraulic Fracture Experiment at the DOE/GRI Multi-Site Project. Paper SPE36450 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,6-9 October. doi: 10.2118/36450-MS.
- Warpinski, N.R., Branagan, P.T., Peterson, R.E., Fix, J.E., Uhl, J.E.,Engler, B.P., and Wilmer, R. 1997. Microseismic and Deformation Imagingof Hydraulic Fracture Growth and Geometry in the C Sand Interval, GRI/DOEM-Site Project. Paper SPE 38573 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 5-8 October. doi:10.2118/38573-MS.
- Rutledge, J.T. and Phillips, W.S. 2003. Hydraulic stimulation of naturalfractures as revealed by induced microearthquakes, Carthage Cotton Valley gasfield, East Texas. Geophysics 68 (2): 441.doi:10.1190/1.1567212.
- Wolhart, S.L., Odegard, C.E., Warpinski, N.R., Waltman, C.K., and Machovoe,S.R. 2005. Microseismic FractureMapping Optimizes Development of Low-Permeability Sands of the Williams ForkFormation in the Piceance Basin. Paper SPE 95637 presented at the SPEAnnual Technology Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12 October. doi:10.2118/95637-MS.
- Coulter, G.R., Benton, E.G., and Thomson, C.L. 2004. Water Fracs and Sand Quality: ABarnett Shale Example. Paper SPE 90891 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29 September. doi:10.2118/90891-MS.
- Warpinski, N.R. and Teufel, L.W. 1987. Influence of Geologic Discontinuitieson Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. J. Pet Tech 39 (2):209-220; Trans., AIME, 283. SPE-13224-PA. doi:10.2118/13224-PA.
- Warpinski, N.R., Kramm, R.C., Heinze, J.R., and Waltman, C.K. 2005. Comparison of Single- and Dual-ArrayMicroseismic Mapping Techniques in the Barnett Shale. Paper SPE 95568presented at the SPE Annual Technology Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12October. doi: 10.2118/95568-MS.
- Cipolla, C., Peterman, F., Creegan, T., McCarley, D., and Nevels, H. 2005.Effect of Well Placement onProduction and Frac Design in a Mature Tight Gas Field. Paper SPE 95337presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12October. doi: 10.2118/95337-MS.
- Mayerhofer, M.J., Bolander, J.L., Williams, L.I., Pavy, A., and Wolhart,S.L. 2005. Integration ofMicroseismic-Fracture-Mapping Fracture and Production Analysis With WellInterference Data to Optimize Fracture Treatments in the Overton Field, EastTexas. Paper SPE 95508 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Dallas, 9-12 October. doi: 10.2118/95508-MS.
- Wolhart, S.L., Harting, T.A., Dahlem, J.E., Young, T.J., Mayerhofer, M.J.,and Lolon, E.P. 2006. HydraulicFracture Diagnostics Used To Optimize Development in the Jonah Field. PaperSPE 102528 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. doi: 10.2118/102528-MS.
- Griffin, L.G., Sullivan, R.B., Wolhart, S.L., Waltman, C.K., Wright, C.A.,Weijers, L., and Warpinski, N.R. 2003. Hydraulic Fracture Mapping of theHigh-Temperature, High-Pressure Bossier Sands in East Texas. Paper SPE84489 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,5-8 October. doi: 10.2118/84489-MS.
- Shemeta, J.E, Maxwell, S., Warpinski, N.R., Quimby, S., Riebel, T,Phillips, Z., Kinser, J.R., Hinds, G., Green, T.W., and Waltman, C.K. 2009. Stacking Seismograms to ImproveMicroseismic Images. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (1):156-164. SPE-108103-PA. doi: 10.2118/108103-PA.
- Warpinski, N.R., Branagan, P.T., Peterson, R.E., Wolhart, S.L., and Uhl,J.E. 1998. Mapping HydraulicFracture Growth and Geometry Using Microseismic Events Detected by a WirelineRetrievable Accelerometer Array. Paper SPE 40014 presented at the SPE GasTechnology Symposium, Calgary, 15-18 March. doi: 10.2118/40014-MS.
- Mayerhofer, M.J., Lolon, E.P., Youngblood, J.E., and Heinze, J.R. 2006. Integration of Microseismic FractureMapping Results With Numerical Fracture Network Production Modeling in theBarnett Shale. Paper SPE 102103 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. doi:10.2118/102103-MS.
- Sharma, M.M. 2005. Advanced Fracturing Technology for Tight Gas: An EastTexas Field Demonstration. DOE Final Report 2001-2004, Contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41326, US DOE/NETL, Morgantown, West Virginia (March 2005).
- Chien, S.-F. 1994. SettlingVelocity of Irregularly Shaped Particles. SPE Drill & Compl 9 (4): 281-289. SPE-26121-PA. doi: 10.2118/26121-PA.
- Kern, L.R., Perkins, T.K., and Wyant, R.E. 1959. The Mechanics of Sand Movement inFracturing. J. Pet Tech 11 (7): 55-57; Trans.,AIME, 216: 403. SPE-1108-G. doi: 10.2118/1108-G.
- Patankar, N.A., Joseph, D.D., Wang, J., Barree., R. Conway, M., and Asadi,M. 2002. Power lawcorrelations for sediment transport in pressure driven channel flows.International Journal of Multiphase Flow 28 (8): 1269-1292.doi:10.1016/S0301-9322(02)00030-7.
- Stim-Lab Research Consortium. 1986-2006. http://www.corelab.com/pe/stimlab/Consortia/Consortia.aspx.
- Besler, M.R., Steele, J.W., Egan, T., and Wagner, J. 2007. Improving Well Productivity andProfitability in the Bakken--A Summary of Our Experiences Drilling,Stimulating, and Operating Horizontal Wells. Paper SPE 110679 presented atthe SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA,11-14 November. doi: 10.2118/110679-MS.
- Leonard, R., Woodroof, R., Bullard, K., Middlebrook, M. and Wilson, R.2007. Barnett Shale Completions:A Method for Assessing New Completion Strategies. Paper SPE 110809presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim,California, USA, 11-14 November. doi: 10.2118/110809-MS.
- Diamond, W.P. and Oyler, D.C. 1987. Effects of Stimulation Treatments onCoalbeds and Surrounding Strata--Evidence from Underground Observations. USBMReport of Investigations, No. RI9083, US Department of Interior, Washington,DC.
- Palisch, T., Duenckel, R., Bazan, L., Heidt, H.J., and Turk, G. 2007. Determining Realistic FractureConductivity and Understanding Its Impact on Well Performance--Theory and FieldExamples. Paper SPE 106301 presented at the SPE Hydraulic FracturingTechnology Conference, College Station, Texas, USA, 29-31 January. doi:10.2118/106301-MS.
- Fredd, C.N., McConnell, S.B., Boney, C.L., and England, K.W. 2001. Experimental Study of FractureConductivity for Water-Fracturing and Conventional Fracturing Applications.SPE J. 6 (3): 288-298. SPE-74138-PA. doi:10.2118/74138-PA.
- Walsh, J.B. 1981. Effect of pore pressureand confining pressure on fracture permeability. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min.Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 18 (5): 429-435.doi:10.1016/0148-9062(81)90006-1.
- Barton, N., Bandis, S., and Bakhtar, K. 1985. Strength deformation andconductivity coupling of rock joints. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci.Geomech. Abstr. 22 (3): 121-140.doi:10.1016/0148-9062(85)93227-9.
- Dedurin, A.V., Majar, V.A., Voronkov, A.A., Zagurenko, A.G., Zakharov,A.Y., Palisch., T., and Vincent, M.C. 2006. Designing Hydraulic Fractures InRussian Oil And Gas Fields To Accommodate Non-Darcy And Multiphase Flow-TheoryAnd Field Examples. Paper SPE 101821 presented at the SPE Russian Oil andGas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 3-6 October. doi:10.2118/101821-MS.
- Vincent, M.C. 2002. ProvingIt--A Review of 80 Published Field Studies Demonstrating the Importance ofIncreased Fracture Conductivity. Paper SPE 77675 presented at the AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 29 September-2October. doi: 10.2118/77675-MS.
- Vincent, M.C., Huckabee, P., and Conway, M. 2007. Field Trial Design and Analyses ofProduction Data From a Tight Gas Reservoir: Detailed Production ComparisonsFrom the Pinedale Anticline. Paper SPE 106151 presented at the HydraulicFracturing Technology Conference, College Station, Texas, USA, 29-31 January.doi: 10.2118/106151-MS.
- Maxwell, S.C., Waltman, C.K., Warpinski, N.R., Mayerhofer, M.J., andBoroumand, N. 2006. ImagingSeismic Deformation Induced by Hydraulic Fracture Complexity. Paper SPE102801 presented at the SPE Annual Technology Conference and Exhibition, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. doi: 10.2118/102801-MS.
- Newberry, B.M., Nelson, R.F., and Ahmed, U. 1985. Prediction of Vertical FractureMigration Using Compression and Shear Wave Slowness. Paper SPE 13895presented at the SPE/DOE Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs Symposium, Denver,19-22 May. doi: 10.2118/13895-MS.
- Thiercelin M.J. and Plumb., R.A. 1994. A Core-Based Prediction of LithologicStress Contrasts in East Texas Formations. SPE Form Eval 9 (4): 251-258. SPE-21847-PA. doi: 10.2118/21847-PA.
- Nolte, K.G. and Smith, M.G. 1981. Interpretation of FracturingPressures. J. Pet Tech 33 (9): 1767-1775. SPE-8297-PA.doi: 10.2118/8297-PA.
- Wright, C.A., Weijers, L., Minner, W.A., and Snow, D.M. 1996. Robust Technique for Real-TimeClosure Stress Determination. SPE Prod & Fac 11(3): 150-155. SPE-30503-PA. doi: 10.2118/30503-PA.
- Mayerhofer, M.J. and Economides, M.J. 1997. Fracture Injection TestInterpretation: Leakoff Coefficient vs. Permeability Estimation. SPEProd & Fac 12 (4): 231-236. SPE-28562-PA. doi:10.2118/28562-PA.
- Wright, C.A. 1997. On Site Step Down Test Analysis Diagnoses Problems andImproves Fracture Treatment Success. Hart's Petroleum EngineerInternational (January 1997).
- Warpinski, N.R., Wolhart, S.L., and Wright, C.A. 2004. Analysis and Prediction ofMicroseismicity Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing. SPE J. 9 (1): 24-33. SPE-87673-PA. doi: 10.2118/87673-PA.
- Palmer, I., Moschovidis, Z., and Cameron, J. 2007. Modeling Shear Failure andStimulation of the Barnett Shale After Hydraulic Fracturing. Paper SPE106113 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, CollegeStation, Texas, USA, 29-31 January. doi: 10.2118/106113-MS.
- Warpinski, N.R., Sullivan, R.B., Uhl, J.E., Waltman, C.K., and Machovoe,S.R. 2005. Improved MicroseismicFracture Mapping Using Perforation Timing Measurements for VelocityCalibration. SPE J. 10 (1): 14-23. SPE-84488-PA. doi:10.2118/84488-PA.
- Block, L.V., Cheng, C.H., Fehler, M.C., and Phillips, W.S. 1994. SeismicImaging using Microearthquakes Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing.Geophysics 59 (1): 102-112.
- Zimmer, U., Maxwell, S., Waltman, C., and Warpinski, N. 2007. Microseismic Monitoring QualityControl (QC) Reports as an Interpretive Tool for Nonspecialists. Paper SPE110517 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 November. doi: 10.2118/110517-MS.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.