Innovative Use of Kaolinite in Downhole Scale Management: Squeeze-Life Enhancement and Water Shutoff
- Niall Fleming (StatoilHydro ASA) | Kari Ramstad (StatoilHydro ASA) | Alexander C. Nelson (M-I SWACO Norge A/S) | Sam Kidd (Scaled Solutions)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- August 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 439 - 449
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3 Production and Well Operations, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.6.5 Tracers, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.8 Formation Damage, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 2.2.2 Perforating, 1.14 Casing and Cementing
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- 519 since 2007
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Applied research has been undertaken to examine the potential of kaolinite combined with a kaolinite-fixation agent to increase squeeze lifetime through alteration of near-wellbore surface characteristics and mineralogy, and to provide water-shutoff control.
With respect to enhancing squeeze lifetime, it is documented that kaolinite increases the quantity of inhibitor adsorbed. Conversely, clean sandstone with low clay content commonly provides a poor substrate for adsorption. Furthermore, in reservoirs that experience near-wellbore formation damage because of kaolinite mobilization, it has been shown that the use of a fixation agent as part of a squeeze treatment can increase squeeze lifetime. Using these facts, research has assessed the feasibility of injecting microcrystalline kaolinite (average particle size 2 µm) combined with the fixation agent and scale inhibitor as a means of mechanically altering near-wellbore mineralogy and surface-property characteristics within clean, high-permeability sandstones. The testing has been designed to mimic the squeeze procedure used in the field for performing such a job and involves no additional steps to those used in a normal squeeze (i.e., Preflush, Main Treatment, Over-Flush). The paper presents the results of coreflood experiments that demonstrate "proof of concept," along with examples of potential field applications.
A further concept, born from the initial idea, was the use of kaolinite and fixation agent for efficient, low-cost, environmentally friendly water shutoff. There are several available products for water shutoff, but the disadvantage of these is that they are not acceptable for use in Norway because of poor environmental characteristics. Hence, there was a need to fill this gap by developing water-shutoff technology to meet country-specific environmental legislation. The paper provides details of coreflood testing where an excess of kaolinite has been used to form an internal and external filter cake that is attached to the wellbore face and within the near-wellbore region using the fixation agent.
The paper draws on data from StatoilHydro-operated fields in order to highlight the potential of this innovative approach to downhole scale management and water control.
|File Size||875 KB||Number of Pages||11|
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