Line Tension-Based Modification of Young's Equation for Rock-Oil-Brine Systems
- Dayanand Saini (Louisiana State University) | Dandina N. Rao (Louisiana State University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 702 - 712
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- line tension
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 600 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The two-century-old Young's equation has been widely used in petroleum engineering to depict the reservoir wettability in terms of contact angle, which is a function of surface free energies of the system. For solid/liquid/vapor (S/L/V) systems, Young's equation has been modified in the recent literature to include a line-tension term. This modification was sought to accommodate the imbalance of intermolecular forces experienced by the three-phase confluence zone. Also, Young's equation does not account for the vertical component of liquid/vapor surface tension. The present study aims to experimentally investigate the applicability of the line-tension-based modification of Young's equation to solid/liquid/liquid (rock/oil/brine) (S/L/L) systems of interest to the petroleum industry.
Both the ambient- and reservoir-condition optical cells were used, with stock-tank and live oil, respectively, to determine the drop-size dependence of dynamic contact angle subtended by the oil/brine interface with the rock surface. The experimental data were correlated with the modified Young's equation to determine the magnitude of line tension for different rock/oil/brine systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply the modified Young's equation to rock/oil/brine systems and to measure line tension for a rock/live-crude-oil/brine system at reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature.
The measured line tension for S/L/L systems, while being positive and of the same order of magnitude as in S/L/V systems, correlates well with the water-advancing contact angle and the adhesion number, a ratio of adhesion force to capillary force. This experimental study indicates that the extent of deviation from Young's equation exhibited by rock/oil/brine systems may be directly related to the rock/oil adhesion interaction. This study reinforces the need to include the rock/oil adhesion force in our consideration of rock/fluid interactions, wettability, and their impact on enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR)/improved-oil-recovery (IOR) processes.
|File Size||558 KB||Number of Pages||11|
Amirfazli, A. and Neumann, A.W. 2004. Status of the three-phaseline tension: a review. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science110 (3): 121-141. doi:10.1016/j.cis.2004.05.001.
Boruvka, L. and Neumann, A.W. 1977. Generalization of the classicaltheory of capillarity. J. Chem. Phys. 66 (12):5464-5476. doi:10.1063/1.433866.
Drelich, J. 1996. The significance andmagnitude of the line tension in three-phase (solid-liquid-fluid) systems.Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects116 (1-2): 43-54. doi:10.1016/0927-7757(96)03651-5.
Drelich, J. and Miller, J.D. 1992. The Line/Pseudo-Line Tensionin Three-Phase Systems. Particulate Science and Technology10 (1-2): 1-20. doi:10.1080/02726359208906593.
Dussan, V.E.B. and Chow, R.T.-P. 1983. On the ability of drops orbubbles to stick to non-horizontal surfaces of solids. Journal of FluidMechanics 137: 1-29. doi:10.1017/S002211208300227X.
Extrand, C.W. and Gent, A.N. 1990. Retention of liquid dropsby solid surfaces. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 138 (2):431-442. doi:10.1016/0021-9797(90)90225-D.
Furmidge, C.G.L. 1962. Studies at phaseinterfaces. I. The sliding of liquid drops on solid surfaces and a theory forspray retention. J. Colloid Sci. 17 (4): 309-324.doi:10.1016/0095-8522(62)90011-9.
Gibbs, J.W. 1961. The Scientific Papers of J.W. Gibbs, Vol. 1, 288.New York: Dover.
Hirasaki, G.J. 1991. Shape of meniscus/film transition region. InInterfacial Phenomena in Petroleum Recovery, ed. N.R. Morrow, Vol. 36,77-99. New York: Surfactant Science Series, Marcel Dekker.
Hirasaki, G.J. 1991. Thermodynamics of thin films and three-phase contactregions. In Interfacial Phenomena in Petroleum Recovery, ed. N.R.Morrow, Vol. 36, 23-75. New York: Surfactant Science Series, Marcel Dekker.
Hjelmeland, O.S. and Larrondo, L.E. 1986. Experimental Investigation of theEffects of Temperature, Pressure and Crude Oil Composition on InterfacialProperties. SPE Res Eng 1 (4): 321-328. SPE-12124-PA.doi: 10.2118/12124-PA.
Israelachvili, J.N. 2006. Intermolecular and Surface Forces, secondedition. London: Academic Press.
Li, D. and Neumann, A.W. 1990. Determination of linetension from the drop size dependence of contact angles. Colloids andSurfaces 43 (2): 195-206.doi:10.1016/0166-6622(90)80288-F.
McCaffery, F.G. 1972. Measurement of interfacial tension and contact anglesat high temperature and pressure. Journal of Canadian PetroleumTechnology (July-September): 26.
Rao, D.N. 1997. Anew technique of vanishing interfacial tension for miscibilitydetermination. Fluid Phase Equilibria 139 (1-2):311-324. doi:10.1016/S0378-3812(97)00180-5.
Rao, D.N. 1997. Is There aCorrelation Between Wettability From Core Floods and Contact Angles? PaperSPE 37234 presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry,Houston, 18-21 February. doi: 10.2118/37234-MS.
Rao, D.N. 1999. WettabilityEffects in Thermal Recovery Operations. SPE Res Eval & Eng2 (5): 420-430. SPE-57897-PA. doi: 10.2118/57897-PA.
Rao, D.N. 2003. The concept, characterization, concerns and consequences ofcontact angles in solid-liquid-liquid systems. In Contact Angle, Wettabilityand Adhesion, ed. K.L. Mittal, Vol. 3, 191-210. Leiden, The Netherlands:VSP International Science Publishers.
Rao, D.N. and Girard, M.G. 1996. A New Technique for Reservoir WettabilityCharacterization. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology(January): 31-39.
Rao, D.N. and Karyampudi, R.S. 2002. Application of thedual-drop dual-crystal contact angle technique to characterize heavy oilreservoir wettability. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology16 (5): 579-596. doi:10.1163/156856102760070385.
Rao, D.N. and Maini, B.B. 1993. Impact of Oil-Rock Adhesion on ReservoirMechanics. CIM Paper 93-65 presented at the 44th Annual Technical Conference,Calgary, May 10-12.
Rao, D.N., Finot, M.O., Fisher D.B., and Girard, M. 1995. Evaluation ofinterfacial phenomena at reservoir conditions. Technical Report 1994/95-9,Petroleum Recovery Institute, Calgary, Alberta (March 1995).
Sequeira, D.S. 2006. Compositional effects on gas-oil interfacial tensionand miscibility at reservoir conditions. MS thesis, Louisiana State University,Baton Rouge, Louisiana (December 2006).
Toshev, B.V., Platikanov, D., and Scheludko, A. 1988. Line tension in three-phaseequilibrium systems. Langmuir 4 (3): 489-499.doi:10.1021/la00081a001.
Valat, M., Bertin, H., and Robin, M. 1993. Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media:Influence of PH on Wettability. In Advances in Core Evaluation III:Reservoir Management: Reviewed Proceedings of the Society of Core AnalystsThird European Core Analysis Symposium, Paris, France, 14-16 September1992, ed. P.F. Worthington and C. Chardaire-Rivière, 387-409. Berkshire,UK: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.
Vesselovsky, V.S., and Pertzov, V.N. 1936. Adhesion of air bubbles to thesolid surface (in Russian). Zh. Fiz. Khim. 8: 245-259.
Vijapurapu, C.S., and Rao, D.N. 2003. The effect of rock surfacecharacteristics on reservoir wettability. In Contact Angle, Wettability andAdhesion, ed. K.L. Mittal, Vol. 3, 407-426. Leiden, The Netherlands: VSPInternational Science Publishers.
Xu, W. 2005. Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Interfacial Interactionsat Reservoir Conditions. MS thesis, Louisiana State University and Agriculturaland Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (May 2005).