Optimizing Recovery for Waterflooding Under Dynamic Induced Fracturing Conditions
- Paul J. van den Hoek (Shell International) | Rashid A. Al-Masfry (Shell International) | Dirk Zwarts (Shell International) | Jan-Dirk Jansen (Shell International) | Bernhard Hustedt (Shell International) | Luc Van Schijndel (Delft University of Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 671 - 682
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 1,303 since 2007
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It is well established within the industry that water injection mostly takes place under induced fracturing conditions. Particularly in low-mobility reservoirs, large fractures may be induced during the field life.
This paper presents a new modeling strategy that combines fluid flow and fracture growth (fully coupled) within the framework of an existing "standard" reservoir simulator.
We demonstrate the coupled simulator by applications to repeated five-spot pattern flood models, addressing various aspects that often play an important role in waterfloods: shortcut of injector and producer, fracture containment to the reservoir layer, and areal and vertical reservoir sweep. We also demonstrate how induced fracture dimensions (length, height) can be very sensitive to typical reservoir engineering parameters, such as fluid mobility, mobility ratio, 3D saturation distribution (in particular, shockfront position), 3D temperature distribution, positions of wells (producers, injectors), and geological details (e.g., layering and faulting). In particular, it is shown that lower overall (time-dependent) reservoir transmissibility will result in larger induced fractures. Finally, it is demonstrated how induced fractures can be taken into account to determine an optimum life-cycle injection rate strategy.
The results presented in this paper are expected to also apply to (part of) enhanced-oil-recovery operations (e.g., polymer flooding).
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