Imaging Fractures Using Temperature Transients From Perturbation Analysis--A Novel Surveillance Technique Applied to the Belridge Diatomite
- Gordon T. Shahin (Shell Development Company) | R.M. Johnston (CalResources)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- March 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 153 - 163
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 2.2.2 Perforating, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.8 History Matching
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 482 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Results of a temperature transient analysis of data from Shell's diatomite steamdrive pilots are used to image hydraulic injection fracture lengths, angles, and heat injectivities into the low-permeability formation. The Phase I pilot is a limited-interval injection test. In Phase II, steam is injected into two 350-ft upper and lower zones through separate hydraulic fractures. Temperature response of both pilots is monitored with 16 logging-observation wells.
A perturbation analysis of the nonlinear pressure diffusion and heat-transport equations indicates that at a permeability of approximately 0.1 md or less, heat transport in the diatomite tends to be dominated by thermal diffusivity, and pressure diffusion is dominated by the ratio of thermal expansion to fluid compressibility. Under these conditions, the temperature observed at a logging-observation well is governed by a dimensionless quantity that depends on the perpendicular distance between the observation well and the hydraulic fracture divided by the square root of time. Using this dependence, a novel method is developed for imaging hydraulic-fracture geometry and relative heat injectivity from the temperature history of the pilot.
The azimuth of the Phase I hydraulic fracture is determined to be 14° ± 2 N-NE. The azimuth of the Phase II upper hydraulic fracture is determined to be 16° ± 2 N-NE in the northern half of the pilot, and estimated to increase to 21° ± 2 in the southern half of the pilot. The azimuth of the lower hydraulic fracture averages 19° ± 4. The hydraulic fractures are found to be symmetric around both injectors, with an estimated length of 200 ft.
Increased steam injection after the first year of pilot operations caused what is interpreted to be horizontal fractures toward the west in the G cycle and the east in the M cycle. These features are imaged to be at least 100 and 160 ft, respectively, along the hydraulic fracture azimuth.
These conclusions are compared to tiltmeter data, microseismic data, and a simulation history match of pilot performance. Microseismic events recorded in the pilot are apparently not diagnostic of heat delivery to the formation.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Bear, J. 1972. Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media, 641. Oxford, UK:Environmental Science Series, Elsevier.
Bird, R.B., Steward, W.E., and Lightfoot, E.N. 1960. TransportPhenomena, 338. New York: Wiley and Sons Publishing.
Brink, J.L., Patzek, T.W., Silin, D.B., and Fielding, E.J. 2002. Lost Hills Field Trial--IncorporatingNew Technology for Reservoir Management. Paper SPE 77646, presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September-2 October.doi: 10.2118/77646-MS.
Carslaw, H.S. and Jaeger, J.C. 1959. Conduction of Heat in Solids,second edition, 62. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Ilderton, D.C., Patzek, T.W., Rector, J.W., and Vinegar, H.J. 1996. Passive Imaging of Hydrofractures inthe South Belridge Diatomite. SPE Form Eval 11 (1):46-54. SPE-28383-PA. doi: 10.2118/28383-PA.
Johnson, D., Sierra, J., and Gualtieri, D. 2006. Successful Flow Profiling of GasWells Using Distributed Temperature Sensing Data. Paper SPE 103097presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 24-27September. doi: 10.2118/103097-MS.
Johnston, R.M. and Shahin, G.T. 1995. Interpretation of Steamdrive Pilotsin the Belridge Diatomite. Paper SPE 29621 presented at the SPE WesternRegional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 8-10 March. doi:10.2118/29621-MS.
Lebedev, N.N., Skalskaya, I.P., and Uflyand, Ya.S. 1965. Problems inMathematical Physics, 178. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Nayfeh, A.H., Brownell, D., and Garg, S.K. 1975. Heat exchange in a fluidpercolating through porous media. Proc., 12th Annual Meeting of theSociety of Engineering Science.
Nott, D.C. and Hara, S.K. 1991. Fracture Half-Length and Linear Flowin the South Belridge Diatomite. Paper SPE 21778 presented at the SPEWestern Regional Meeting, Long Beach, California, 20-22 March. doi:10.2118/21778-MS.
Olsen, D.K., Sarathi, P.S., Hendricks, M.L., Schulte, R.K., and Giangiacomo,L.A. 1993. Case History of SteamInjection Operations at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, Teapot Dome Field,Wyoming: A Shallow Heterogeneous Light-Oil Reservoir. Paper SPE 25786presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations Symposium, Bakersfield,California, 8-10 February. doi: 10.2118/25786-MS.
Van Dyke, M. 1975. Perturbation Methods in Fluid Mechanics, 45.Stanford, California: The Parabolic Press.
Vinegar, H.J., Wills, P.B., DeMartini, D.C., Shlyapobersky, J., Deeg,W.F.J., Adair, R.G., Woerpel, J.C., Fix, J.E., and Sorrells, G.G. 1992. Active and Passive Seismic Imagingof a Hydraulic Fracture in Diatomite. J. Pet Tech 44(1): 28. SPE-22756-PA. doi: 10.2118/22756-PA.