Brine Viscosity Correlation with Temperature Using the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) Equation
- Faruk Civan (U. of Oklahoma)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- December 2007
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 341 - 355
- 2007. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.1 Hydrates, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 2 Well Completion, 1.8 Formation Damage, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids
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- 852 since 2007
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Theoretically meaningful correlation of the viscosity of typical brines with temperature and dissolved salt concentration is presented. The temperature dependence of the brine viscosity is described using the VTF equation type asymptotic exponential function. The parameters of this equation are correlated with the brine concentration. This approach for developing accurate empirical correlations is verified by means of experimental data. The present approach is proven to lead to accurate correlations of the brine viscosity using a mathematically simple, but theoretically-meaningful equation, when reliable experimental data is available.
Accurate correlation of the brine-viscosity data is of utmost practical importance when seeking optimal conditions of completion fluids for particular applications. Although the best correlations of experimental data for temperature dependency can be accomplished by taking advantage of the VTF equation (Vogel 1921; Tammann and Hesse 1926; Fulcher 1925) and avoiding the use of temperature-dependent variables, correlations are still being attempted by the mixed use of both the temperature-dependent and independent variables in many studies. For example, Ortego and Vollmer (2006) developed several empirical correlations in this manner for the viscosity of the single-salt and mixed-salt brines using the experimental data obtained at temperatures below 200oF. Their correlations are unnecessarily complicated and therefore of low accuracy because the brine viscosities were expressed as functions of both the temperature and density. However, density is dependent upon temperature and therefore should not be included in the correlation of viscosity when only the temperature effect is considered. Including the density as a variable is not only unnecessary, but also reduces the accuracy of the correlations. The experimental measurement errors associated with both the viscosity and density, produce a compound affect in reducing the accuracy of the resulting correlations. Such exercises should be avoided in correlation of any experimental data. It is important to distinguish between the true independent and dependent variables and the data should be correlated using only the truly independent variables. The accuracy of their correlations also suffers from being solely empirical, thus, not taking advantage of a relevant theory.
The objective of this paper is to correlate the data of Ortego and Vollmer (2006) in a theoretically rigorous manner to achieve the maximum possible accuracy in the correlation of the brine viscosity. This paper attempts at a practical but theoretically, meaningful correlation of the experimental measurements of the viscosity of typical brines with temperature and concentration. The temperature dependence of the brine viscosity is described using the VTF equation type asymptotic exponential function. The parameters of this equation are correlated with the brine concentration. The present approach yields a mathematically simple but theoretically rigorous correlation of the brine viscosity, providing better accuracy than the correlations given by Ortego and Vollmer (2006) when the experimental data is accurate.
The author has chosen to provide supplemental information for this paper. This supplemental information is freely available at http://www.spe.org/files/spedc/108463/
|File Size||4 MB||Number of Pages||15|
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