Stacking Seismograms to Improve Microseismic Images
- Julie E. Shemeta (Pinnacle Technologies) | Shawn C. Maxwell (Pinnacle Technologies) | Norman R. Warpinski (Pinnacle Technologies) | Charles K. Waltman (Pinnacle Technologies) | Zachary D. Phillips (Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation) | Thomas G. Riebel (Pinnacle Technologies) | James Kinser (Bill Barrett Corporation) | Gregory S.T. Hinds (Bill Barrett Corporation) | Trent W. Green (BOPCO, L.P.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 156 - 164
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 5.1.7 Seismic Processing and Interpretation, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.2 Wellbore Design, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.4.5 Gravel pack design & evaluation
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 642 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Microseismic mapping's primary limitation is its viewing distance, which is affected by noise, attenuation, and the intrinsic size of the source event. In the Rocky Mountains, the required viewing distances are often less than typical offset-well spacings, making accurate mapping difficult in many fields. A new approach to improving microseismic mapping capabilities is to digitally stack the signals from separate adjacent receivers to obtain noise cancellation. This approach requires large numbers of receivers and fast telemetry rates to obtain the necessary data. An experiment has been conducted in the Uintah basin with a 12 level receiver array in which 3 of the 12 levels consisted of triple receiver stacks. The improvement in the signal quality consists of reduced noise, improved hodogram linearity, and clearer phase arrivals. The subsequent microseismic maps using stacked data are both more accurate and contain more events that can be analyzed.
Mapping of hydraulic fractures using the microseismic method has proven to be a major factor in the development of "technology plays" such as the Barnett shale (Fisher et al. 5004; Fisher et al. 2002; Maxwell et al. 2002; Warpinski et al. 2004; Maxwell et al. 2004) and tight gas sands (Wolhart et al. 2005; Wolhart et al. 2006). The measurement of fracture dimensions and growth, with respect to areal coverage, height growth, natural-fracture interactions, staging of both horizontal and vertical wells, and many other factors, has proven to be of great value in understanding how to optimize development. Well layout and spacing, numbers of stages, flow rates and volumes, wellbore design, and the assessment of mechanical problems are some of the factors that can be evaluated using fracture mapping technology.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||9|
Albright, J.N. and Pearson, C.F. 1982. Acoustic Emissions as a Tool forHydraulic Fracture Location: Experience at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry RockSite. SPE J. 22 (4): 523-530. SPE-9509-PA. DOI:10.2118/9509-PA.
Fisher, M.K. 2004. OptimizingHorizontal Completion Techniques in the Barnett Shale Using MicroseismicFracture Mapping. Paper SPE 90051 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29 September. DOI: 10.2118/90051-MS.
Fisher, M.K., Wright, C.A., Davidson, B.M., Goodwin, A.K., Fielder, E.O.,Buckler, W.S., and Steinsberger, N.P. 2002. Integrating Fracture MappingTechnologies to Optimize Stimulations in the Barnett Shale . Paper SPE77441 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 29 September-2 October. DOI: 10.2118/77441-MS.
House, L. 1987. Locatingmicroearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing in crystalline rock.Geophys. Res. Letters 14 (9): 919-921.DOI:10.1029/GL014i009p00919.
Maxwell, S.C., Urbancic, T., Demerling, C., and Prince, M. 2002. Real-Time 4D Passive Seismic Imagingof Hydraulic Fracturing. Paper SPE 78191 presented at the SPE/ISRM RockMechanics Conference, Irving, Texas, USA, 20-23 October. DOI:10.2118/78191-MS.
Maxwell, S.C., Urbancik, T.I., Steinsberger, N.P., and Zinno, R. 2002. Microseismic Imaging of HydraulicFracture Complexity in the Barnett Shale. Paper SPE 77440 presented at theSPE Annual Technology Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 29September-2 October. DOI: 10.2118/77440-MS.
Maxwell, S.C., Waltman, C.K., Warpinski, N.R., Mayerhofer, M.J., andBoroumand, N. 2006. ImagingSeismic Deformation Induced by Hydraulic Fracture Complexity. Paper SPE102801 presented at the SPE Annual Technology Conference and Exhibition, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. DOI: 10.2118/102801-MS.
Northorp, D.A. and Schuster, C.L. ed. 1979. Enhanced gas recovery program.Fourth annual report, October 1978-September 1979. Annual Report, SAND79-2428,Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (November 1979).
Nuccio, V.F. and Roberts, L.N.R. 2003. Thermal maturity and oil and gasgeneration history of petroleum systems in the Unita-Piceance Province, Utahand Colorado. In Petroleum Systems and Geological Assessment of Oil and Gasin the Uinta-Piceance Province, Utah and Colorado, USGS Uinta-PinceanceAssessment Team, Version 1.0, Chap. 4. Denver, Colorado: Digital Data SeriesDDS 069-B, USGS.
Rutledge, J.T. and Phillips, W.S. 2003. Hydraulic stimulation of naturalfractures as revealed by induced microearthquakes, Carthage Cotton Valley gasfield, East Texas. Geophysics 68 (2): 441.DOI:10.1190/1.1567212.
Sheriff, R.E. and Geldart, L.P. 1982. Exploration Seismology.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Warpinski, N.R., Branagan, P.T., Peterson, R.E., Wolhart, S.L., and Uhl,J.E. 1998. Mapping HydraulicFracture Growth and Geometry Using Microseismic Events Detected by a WirelineRetrievable Accelerometer Array. Paper SPE 40014 presented at the SPE GasTechnology Symposium, Calgary, 15-18 March. DOI: 10.2118/40014-MS.
Warpinski, N.R., Kramm, R.C., Heinze, J.R., and Waltman, C.K. 2004. Comparison of Single- and Dual-ArrayMicroseismic Mapping Techniques in the Barnett Shale. Paper SPE 95568presented at the SPE Annual Technology Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12October. DOI: 10.2118/95568-MS.
Warpinski, N.R., Sullivan, R.B., Uhl, J.E., Waltman, C.K., and Machovoe,S.R. 2005. Improved MicroseismicFracture Mapping Using Perforation Timing Measurements for VelocityCalibration. SPE J. 10 (1): 14-23. SPE-84488-PA. DOI:10.2118/84488-PA.
Warpinski, N.R., Wolhart, S.L., and Wright, C.A. 2004. Analysis and Prediction ofMicroseismicity Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing. SPE J.9 (1): 24-33. SPE-87673-PA. DOI: 10.2118/87673-PA.
Wolhart, S.L., Harting, T.A., Dahlem, J.E., Young, T.J., Mayerhofer, M.J.,and Lolon, E.P. 2006. HydraulicFracture Diagnostics Used To Optimize Development in the Jonah Field. PaperSPE 102528 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. DOI: 10.2118/102528-MS.
Wolhart, S.L., Odegard, C.E., Warpinski, N.R., Waltman, C.K., and Machovoe,S.R. 2005. Microseismic FractureMapping Optimizes Development of Low-Permeability Sands of the Williams ForkFormation in the Piceance Basin. Paper SPE 95637 presented at the SPEAnnual Technology Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12 October. DOI:10.2118/95637-MS.