A New Splitting Scheme and Existence of Elliptic Region for Gasflood Modeling
- Thiago A. Dutra (UENF-LENEP) | Adolfo P. Pires (UENF-LENEP) | Pavel G. Bedrikovetsky (U. of Adelaide)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- March 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 101 - 111
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.5.7 Streamline Simulation, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 4.1.4 Gas Processing, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.3.1 Flow in Porous Media, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 4.6 Natural Gas, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.4.9 Miscible Methods, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors
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Analytical models of gasflooding are important for enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) screening, for interpretation of laboratory data, and for streamline modeling. Introduction of two Lagrangian coordinates linked with one of the components and with the overall two-phase flux results in splitting the compositional model into an auxiliary system and an independent scalar equation. The number of equations in the auxiliary system is less by one if compared with the compositional model, making analytical modeling possible for more practical cases. The auxiliary system contains only thermodynamic functions and is independent of transport properties. Therefore, phase transitions and minimum miscibility pressure for gas injection are also independent of transport properties. The new splitting method is applicable for both self-similar solutions of continuous gas injection and nonself-similar solvent-slug problems. Analytical solution for four-component oil displacement by a nitrogen-based solvent was obtained using the splitting technique. The compositional two-phase model contains an elliptic region if and only if an elliptic region is also present in the auxiliary system. Calculations for several four-component mixtures exhibit existence of an elliptic region in compositional modeling.
Miscible displacement is characterized by the injection of fluids that mix totally or partially with reservoir fluid (Lake 1989; Latil 1980). Basically, there are three main distinct miscible-hydrocarbon-solvent processes--miscible-slug injection, enriched-gas injection, and high-pressure lean-gas injection (van Poolen 1980). The miscible-slug process consists of the injection of a slug of liquid hydrocarbon driven by a chase fluid, which may be natural gas or even water. The enriched-gas process is essentially the injection of a slug of enriched natural gas displaced by lean gas or water. In the third process, lean gas is injected at high pressure to achieve retrograde evaporation of oil and the formation of a miscible phase between gas and oil phases flowing in the reservoir. The most important technical problem of miscible-hydrocarbon injection, besides its cost, is related to the high mobility ratio of solvent to crude oil. As oil price increased, carbon dioxide became a natural substitute for hydrocarbons in miscible flooding processes. It is also suitable for continuous injection during production lifetime, depending on the thermodynamic behavior of its mixture with reservoir fluid. Recently, more attention has been given to the injection of inert gas, such as nitrogen (N2) or flue gas, with promising results.
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