Quantitative Analysis of Reaction-Rate Retardation in Surfactant-Based Acids
- Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University) | Abdullah M. Al-Mohammed (Saudi Aramco) | Ali D. Al-Aamri (Saudi Aramco) | Musaed A. Al-Fahad (Saudi Aramco) | Frank F. Chang (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 107 - 116
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 1.8 Formation Damage, 2 Well Completion, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.2.2 Perforating, 3.2.4 Acidising
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Fracture acidizing has been a dominant practice in the industry to enhance well productivity in low-permeability carbonate reservoirs. Many acid systems have been developed to improve this stimulation process. The most desirable characteristics for an acid system to be suitable for fracture acidizing are leakoff control and retarded reaction rate. These characteristics are required for deep acid penetration, so that when the fracture closes, long flow channels are etched on the fracture surfaces. Leakoff control can be achieved by pumping a pad containing a viscosifying agent or solid bridging agents to plug wormholes generated by acid dissolution. Reaction retardation is attempted usually by lowering the effective diffusivity of the hydrogen ion.
It is well known that during an acid-fracturing operation, the overall reaction rate of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with limestone is mass-transfer-limited. Designing the treatment requires knowing the effective diffusivity of the hydrogen ion in the acid system, which, to the best of the authors' knowledge, has not been determined before. Because of their combined leakoff-control and retardation capabilities, surfactant-based acids have been used in acid-fracturing treatments. Because more carbonate reservoirs are treated by use of this acid system, it is important to obtain the effective diffusivity of H+.
The rotating-disk device has been used to investigate the reaction kinetics between a reactive solution and carbonate rocks because the thickness of the boundary layer is uniform throughout the disk surface. This paper discusses the reaction-rate data generated recently for surfactant-based acid by use of a rotating-disk apparatus and presents the methodology used to determine the effective diffusivity from the measurements.
The results obtained indicated that the viscoelastic surfactant examined (carboxybetaine-type) reduced the dissolution rate of calcite with HCl acid. The surfactant reduced the diffusion coefficient for H+. The effect of temperature on the diffusion coefficient did not follow the Arrhenius law.
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