Combining Saturation Changes and 4D Seismic for Updating Reservoir Characterizations
- Arne Skorstad (Norwegian Computing Center) | Odd Kolbjornsen (Norwegian Computing Center) | Asmund Drottning (Norsar) | Havar Gjoystdal (Norsar) | Olaf K. Huseby (Inst. for Energiteknikk)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 502 - 512
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.10 Seismic (Four Dimensional) Monitoring, 5.1.7 Seismic Processing and Interpretation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.1.8 Seismic Modelling, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.1.9 Four-Dimensional and Four-Component Seismic, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 3.3 Well & Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 1.5.1 Surveying and survey programs, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.5.8 History Matching, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
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Elastic seismic inversion is a tool frequently used in analysis of seismic data. Elastic inversion relies on a simplified seismic model and generally produces 3D cubes for compressional-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity, and density. By applying rock-physics theory, such volumes may be interpreted in terms of lithology and fluid properties. Understanding the robustness of forward and inverse techniques is important when deciding the amount of information carried by seismic data.
This paper suggests a simple method to update a reservoir characterization by comparing 4D-seismic data with flow simulations on an existing characterization conditioned on the base-survey data. The ability to use results from a 4D-seismic survey in reservoir characterization depends on several aspects. To investigate this, a loop that performs independent forward seismic modeling and elastic inversion at two time stages has been established.
In the workflow, a synthetic reservoir is generated from which data are extracted. The task is to reconstruct the reservoir on the basis of these data. By working on a realistic synthetic reservoir, full knowledge of the reservoir characteristics is achieved. This makes the evaluation of the questions regarding the fundamental dependency between the seismic and petrophysical domains stronger. The synthetic reservoir is an ideal case, where properties are known to an accuracy never achieved in an applied situation. It can therefore be used to investigate the theoretical limitations of the information content in the seismic data.
The deviations in water and oil production between the reference and predicted reservoir were significantly decreased by use of 4D-seismic data in addition to the 3D inverted elastic parameters.
It is well known that the information in seismic data is limited by the bandwidth of the seismic signal. 4D seismics give information on the changes between base and monitor surveys and are consequently an important source of information regarding the principal flow in a reservoir. Because of its limited resolution, the presence of a thin thief zone can be observed only as a consequence of flow, and the exact location will not be found directly. This paper addresses the question of how much information there is in the seismic data, and how this information can be used to update the model for petrophysical reservoir parameters.
Several methods for incorporating 4D-seismic data in the reservoir-characterization workflow for improving history matching have been proposed earlier. The 4D-seismic data and the corresponding production data are not on the same scale, but they need to be combined. Huang et al. (1997) proposed a simulated annealing method for conditioning these data, while Lumley and Behrens (1997) describe a workflow loop in which the 4D-seismic data are compared with those computed from the reservoir model. Gosselin et al. (2003) give a short overview of the use of 4D-seismic data in reservoir characterization and propose using gradient-based methods for history matching the reservoir model on seismic and production data. Vasco et al. (2004) show that 4D data contain information of large-scale reservoir-permeability variations, and they illustrate this in a Gulf of Mexico example.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||11|
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