Reservoir-Fluid Sampling Revisited - A Practical Perspective
- Johannes Bon (U. of Adelaide) | Hemanta Kumar Sarma (U. of Adelaide) | Jose Teofilo Rodrigues (Santos Ltd.) | Jan Gerardus Bon (Petrolab Australia Pty Ltd)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- December 2007
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 589 - 596
- 2007. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.8 Formation Damage, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.5.11 Formation Testing (e.g., Wireline, LWD), 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 1,766 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) fluid properties are an integral part of determining the ultimate oil recovery and characterization of a reservoir, and are a vital tool in our attempts to enhance the reservoir's productive capability. However, as the experimental procedures to obtain these are time consuming and expensive, they are often based on analyses of a few reservoir-fluid samples, which are then applied to the entire reservoir. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to ensure that representative samples are taken, as they are fundamental to the reliability and accuracy of a study.
Critical to the successful sampling of a reservoir fluid is the correct employment of sampling procedures and well conditioning before and during sampling. There are two general methods of sampling—surface and subsurface sampling. However, within these, there exist different methods that can be more applicable to a particular type of reservoir fluid than to another. In addition, well conditioning can differ depending on the type of reservoir fluid. Sampling methods for each reservoir type will be discussed with an emphasis on scenarios where difficulties arise, such as near-critical reservoir fluids and saturated reservoirs. Methods, including single-phase sampling and isokinetic sampling, which have been used increasingly in the last decade, will also be discussed with some detail, as will preservation of the representatives of other components in the sample including asphaltenes, mercury, and sulfur compounds.
The paper presents a discussion aimed at better understanding the methods available, concepts behind the methods, well conditioning, and problems involved in obtaining representative fluid samples.
Reservoir-fluid samples are obtained for a number of reasons, including
- PVT analysis for subsequent engineering calculations
- Determination of the components that exist in a particular reservoir to have an understanding of the economic value of the fluid
- Knowledge of the contents of certain components that exist in the reservoir fluid for further planning and future drilling programs, such as the content of sulfur compounds and carbon dioxide, and the corrosiveness of the fluid. This will have an impact on the material used for casing, tubing, and surface equipment that may be necessary
- Knowledge of the fluid's ability to flow through production tubing, pipelines, and other flow lines, and possible problems that may arise because of viscosity changes because of precipitation of solids such as wax and/or of asphaltene
- Determining the contaminating components that affect plant design, such as the mercury content, sulfur components, and radioactive components
- If the saturation pressure is approximately equal to the reservoir pressure then a second phase may be present. This is particularly relevant for gas reservoirs, where further drilling may discover an oil or condensate leg.
Mostly the samples are required to obtain a better knowledge of a combination of these effects; however, it must be kept in mind that often the sample is not required to resolve all of these issues.
|File Size||171 KB||Number of Pages||8|
Achourov, V., Khamitov, I., and Yatsenko, V. 2006. A Technique for MeasuringPermeability Anisotropy and Recovering PVT Samples in a Heavy Oil Reservoir inNorth West Siberia. Paper SPE 102460 presented at the SPE Russian Oil andGas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 3-6 October. DOI:10.2118/102460-MS.
Amyx, J.W., Bass, D.M., and Whiting, R.L. 1960. Petroleum ReservoirEngineering 360, New York City: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Ayan, C., Douglas, A., and Kuchuk, F. 1996. A Revolution in ReservoirCharacterization. Schlumberger Middle East Well Evaluation Review16: 44-55.
Bingham, M.D. 1990. FieldDetection and Implications of Mercury in Natural Gas. SPEPE 5(2): 120-124. SPE-19357-PA. DOI: 10.2118/19357-PA.
Cobenas, R.H. and Crotti, M.A. 1999.Volatile Oil. Determination ofReservoir Fluid Composition From a Non-Representative Fluid Sample. PaperSPE 54005 presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean PetroleumEngineering Conference, Caracas, 21-23 April. DOI: 10.2118/54005-MS.
Dake, L.P. 1994. The Practice of Reservoir Engineering, 33,Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
Dybdahl, B. 2006. A Systematic Approach to Sampling During Well Testing.Paper presented at the ENI E&P Division and ENI Technology Conference,Milan, Italy, 23 February.
El-Banbi, A.H. and McCain, W.D. Jr. 2001. Sampling Volatile Oil Wells.Paper SPE 67232 presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium,Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 24-27 March. DOI: 10.2118/67232-MS.
Elshahawi, H. and Hashem, M. 2005. Accurate Measurement of the HydrogenSulfide Content in Formation Fluid Samples—Case Studies. Paper SPE 94707presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12October. DOI: 10.2218/94707-MS.
Fevang, Ø. and Whitson, C.H. 1994. Accurate Insitu Compositions inPetroleum Reservoirs. Paper SPE 28829 presented at the European PetroleumConference, London, 25-27 October. DOI: 10.2118/28829-MS.
Jamaluddin, A.K.M., Ross, B., and Daigle, T. 1999. Single-Phase ReservoirSampling: Is it a Necessity or Luxury? Paper CIM 99-36 presented at the 1999CSPG and Petroleum Society Joint Convention, Calgary, 14-18 June.
Jamaluddin, A.K.M., Creek, J., Kabir, C.S. et al. 2001. A Comparison of Various LaboratoryTechniques to Measure Thermodynamic Asphaltene Instability. Paper SPE 72154presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Improved Oil Recovery Conference, KualaLumpur, 6-9 October. DOI: 10.2118/72154-MS.
McCain, W.D. Jr. and Alexander, R.A. 1992. Sampling Gas-Condensate Wells.SPERE 7 (3): 358-362. SPE-19729-PA. DOI: 10.2118/19729-PA.
Michaels, J., Moody, M., and Shwe, T. 1995. Wireline Fluid Sampling. PaperSPE 30610 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Dallas, 22-25 October. DOI: 10.2118/30610-MS.
Morton, K.L., Osman, M.S., and Kew, S.A. 2005. Heavy-Oil Uncertainties FacingOperators in the North Sea. Paper SPE 97898 presented at theSPE/PS-CIM/CHOA International Thermal Operation and Heavy Oil Symposium,Calgary, 1-3 November. DOI: 10.2118/97898-MS.
Nagarajan, N.R., Honarpour, M.M., and Sampath, K. 2006. Reservoir Fluid Sampling andCharacterization—Key to Efficient Reservoir Management. Paper SPE 101517presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference,Abu Dhabi, UAE, 5-8 November. DOI: 10.2118/101517-MS.
Reudelhuber, F.O. 1957. Sampling Procedures for Oil Reservoir Fluids.JPT 9 (12): 15-18. SPE-816-G.
Riley, W.D., Walters, R.P., Cramer, S.D., and McCawley, F.X. 1978. Isokinetic Technique for SamplingGeothermal Fluid In Two-Phase Flow. Unsolicited from US Dept. of theInterior. SPE-7885-MS. DOI: 10.2118/7885-MS.
Strong, J., Thomas, F.B., and Bennion, D.B. 1993. Reservoir Fluid Samplingand Recombination Techniques for Laboratory Experiments. Paper CIM 93-54presented at the CIM Annual Technical Conference, Calgary, 9-12 May.
Towler, B.F. 1989. ReservoirEngineering Aspects of Bottomhole Sampling of Saturated Oils for PVTAnalysis. Unsolicited paper from the University of Wyoming. SPE-19438-MS.DOI:10.2118/19438-MS.
Wilhelm, S.M. and McArthur, A. 1995. Removal and Treatment of MercuryContamination at Gas Processing Facilities. Paper SPE 29721 presented atthe SPE/EPA Exploration and Production Environmental Conference, Houston, 27-29March. DOI: 10.2118/29721-MS.
Williams, J.M. 1994. Gettingthe Best Out of Fluid Samples. JPT 46 (9): 752. SPE-29227-PA.DOI: 10.2118/29227-PA.