Pembina Pilot Water Flood Proving Successful
- John J. Justen (Mobil Oil of Canada Ltd.) | Paul J. Hoenmans (Mobil Oil of Canada Ltd.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 1958
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 21 - 23
- 1958. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 4.3.4 Scale
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The Pembina field, located in the Province of Alberta in Western Canada as shown above, is the largest oil field in Canada and one of the largest in the North American continent. The productive area, as defined by the Alberta Oil and Gas Conservation Board, is approximately 300,000 acres. Over 2,000 wells have been drilled. The original oil in place is estimated to be 4 billion STB. Although less than five years old, the pool to date has produced nearly 100 million bbl of oil. The current production rate is 100,000 B/D. The graphic reservoir history is presented in Fig. 1.
The reservoir is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Cardium formation. Neither bottom water nor free gas has been found. This sandstone has an average net thickness of 19.0 ft, an average porosity of 14.2 per cent and an average interstitial water saturation of 10.5 per cent. The average permeability varies from 34 md in the main part of the pool to 9 md in the western part. Nearly every well has been fractured to obtain production in commercial quantities.
The crude oil was initially undersaturated with a major portion having a solubility in the order of 500 scf/bbl and a bubble point in the order of 1,700 psig. The average gravity is 37.1°API.
Increasing gas-oil ratios, decreasing productivities, and rapid pressure decline have established the producing mechanism to be the expansion of the undersaturated crude oil followed by solution gas drive. The natural depletion recovery has been estimated at 12.5 per cent.
Pressure maintenance studies of various areas in Pembina have indicated that the recovery can be increased 2½ times by water flooding. Beginning in 1956, waterflooding operations were commenced by several operators. Most of these operations were pilots. One such operation was commenced by Mobil Oil in Canada, Ltd. which has more than 50,000 acres and over 550 wells.
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