Production of Wet Natural Gas Containing Corrosive Components: Four Case Histories
- Wolfgang Havlik (OMV Exploration & Production) | Karin Thayer (OMV Exploration & Production) | Markus Oberndorfer (OMV Exploration & Production)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- August 2007
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 319 - 325
- 2007. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 3.2.4 Acidising, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.1.4 Gas Processing, 4.1.3 Dehydration
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In petroleum production, the problem of corrosive media attacking metallic structures is almost ubiquitous. Particularly severe environments are encountered in the production and transport of wet natural gas containing corrosive components, such as hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. When exploring new gas fields, it is therefore a prerequisite to take into account the corrosivity of the respective fluids in all stages of the field development, material selection, field layout, and facilities design. In preparation of the subsequent production phase, reliable corrosion monitoring programs have to be selected, established, and implemented as necessary. Furthermore, the financial aspects always play an important role, thus posing a real challenge for the engineer forced to seek a compromise between economics and design.
This paper gives a comprehensive overview of these considerations regarding four different OMV gas fields, two in Austria and two in Pakistan, which were successfully developed and brought onstream between 1967 and 2003. These fields not only vary in their geographical position, but also in their gas compositions, production start, and the location of gas dehydration units.
One major aspect dealt with in each of these cases was material selection, including metallic as well as nonmetallic and composite materials. Where the initial decision was made in favor of carbon steel, different methods of corrosion protection, the application of corrosion inhibitors, corrosion monitoring, and intelligent pigging are discussed in the paper.
A comparison of the various methods of resolution worked out for all four case histories, as well as the experience gained in more than three decades of production and transportation of wet, corrosive natural gas is presented.
Furthermore, results of the ongoing corrosion monitoring measurements in operation in the mature gas fields are discussed under the aspect of the remaining facility lifetimes.
To achieve long lifetimes of the production facilities, the production and transportation of wet, corrosive natural gas requires selection of suitable material and measures for combating corrosion. In addition to the liquid phase, which may show a low pH value and some amount of chlorides, the existence of the corrosives CO2 and H2S in the gaseous phase can pose serious corrosion problems. The presence of H2S, leads to the problem of general corrosion; additionally, it can lead to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) if the materials are not properly selected. Furthermore, some operational parameters, such as chlorides in the produced water and high temperatures, can intensify the corrosivity of the fluids. Stress corrosion cracking is taken to be one of the most dangerous forms of corrosion because it can result in an unexpected failure of a component, causing shutdown times and high financial losses caused by the need for extensive repair or reinstallation (e.g., of a pipeline), but above all, it canalsocause a potential environmental and safety risk.
Carbon dioxide sweet corrosion is also a well-known problem in gas production. CO2 dissolves in brine to form carbonic acid that ionizes to yield a low-pH value. The resulting acidic solution strongly enhances the corrosion in the carbon steel pipes and facilities. The presence of CO2 can lead to corrosion rates of several mm/year if no proper corrosion protection measures are applied.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||7|
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