Modeling Wettability Alteration By Surfactants in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
- Mojdeh Delshad (University of Texas at Austin) | Nariman Fathi Najafabadi (University of Texas at Austin) | Glen Anderson (University of Texas at Austin) | Gary A. Pope (University of Texas at Austin) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- June 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 361 - 370
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 3,875 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Laboratory surfactant and hot-water floods have shown a great potential in increasing oil recovery for reservoirs that are naturally fractured and have low-permeability, mixed-wet matrix rocks. Fractured, mixed-wet formations usually have poor waterflood performance because the injected water tends to flow in the fractures and imbibition into the matrix is not very significant. Surfactants have been used to change the wettability for increasing the oil recovery by increased imbibition of the water into the rock matrix. The mechanisms for oil recovery are combined effects of reduced interfacial tension (IFT), reduced mobility ratio, and wettability alteration. The goal of this research is to adapt an existing numerical reservoir simulator to model chemical processes leading to wettability alteration in naturally fractured reservoirs. Surfactants have been used to change the wettability, with the goal of increasing the oil recovery by increased imbibition of the water into the rock matrix. Reservoir simulation is required to scale up the process from laboratory to field conditions, as well as to understand and interpret reservoir data. A chemical-flooding simulator is adapted to model improved-oil-recovery processes involving wettability alteration using surfactants. Multiple relative permeability and capillary pressure curves corresponding to different wetting states are used to model the wettability alteration. Simulations are performed to better understand and predict enhanced oil recovery as a function of wettability alteration, and to investigate the impact of uncertainties in the fracture and matrix properties, reservoir heterogeneity, matrix diffusion, buoyancy-driven flow, initial water saturation, and formation wettability. The proposed wettability-alteration model and its implementation were successfully validated against laboratory experiments. Upscaled simulations indicated the importance of matrix properties on the rate of imbibition. The oil recovery increases with an increase in matrix permeability and a decrease in matrix initial water saturation.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||10|
Adibhatla, B, Sun, X., and Mohanty, K.K. 2005. Numerical Studies of Oil Productionfrom Initially Oil-Wet Fracture Blocks by Surfactant Brine Imbibition.Paper SPE 97687 presented at the SPE International Improved Oil RecoveryConference in Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, 5-6 December. doi:10.2118/97687-MS.
Aldejain, A. 1989. Implementation of a Dual Porosity Model in a ChemicalFlooding Simulator. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin,Texas.
Al-Hadhrami, H.S. and Blunt, M.J. 2000. Thermally Induced WettabilityAlteration to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Reservoirs. Paper SPE 59289presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 3-5 April.doi: 10.2118/59289-MS.
Anderson, G.A., Delshad, M., King, C.B., Mohammadi, H., and Pope, G.A. 2006.Optimization of Chemical Floodingin a Mixed-Wet Dolomite Reservoir. Paper SPE 100082 presented at theSPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 22-26 April. doi:10.2118/100082-MS.
Austad, T., Matre, B., Milter, J., Sævareid, A., and Øyno, L. 1998. Chemical flooding of oilreservoirs 8. Spontaneous oil expulsion from oil- and water-wet low permeablechalk material by imbibition of aqueous surfactant solutions. Colloidsand Surfaces A: Physico. Eng. Aspects 137 (1-3): 117-129.doi:10.1016/S0927-7757(97)00378-6.
Babadagli, T. 1996. Heavy Oil Recovery From Matrix During ThermalApplications in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. In Situ 20(3): 221.
Babadagli, T. 2001. Scaling ofCo-Current and Counter-Current Capillary Imbibition for Surfactant and PolymerInjection in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE J. 6(4): 465-478. SPE-74702-PA. doi: 10.2118/74702-PA.
Bear, J. 1979. Hydraulics of Ground Water. McGraw Hill, New York.
Chen, H.L., Lucas, L.R., Nogaret, L.A.D, Yang, H.D., and Kenyon, D.E. 2000.Laboratory Monitoring ofSurfactant Imbibition Using Computerized Tomography. Paper SPE 59006presented at the SPE/DOE International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition inMexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, 1-3 February. doi: 10.2118/59006-MS.
Datta-Gupta, A., Pope, G.A., Sepehrnoori, K., and Thrasher, R.L. 1986. A Symmetric, Positive DefiniteFormulation of a Three-Dimensional Micellar/Polymer Simulator. SPEJ. 1 (6): 622-632. SPE-13504-PA. doi: 10.2118/13504-PA.
Delshad, M. 1990. Trapping of Micellar Fluids in Berea Sandstone. PhDdissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Delshad, M., Asakawa, K., Pope, G., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2002. Simulations of Chemical and MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery Methods. Paper SPE 75237 presented at the SPE/DOEImproved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 13-17 April. doi: 10.2118/75237-MS.
Delshad, M., Delshad, M., Bhuyan, D., Pope, G.A., and Lake, L.W. 1986. Effect of Capillary Number on theResidual Saturation of a Three-Phase Micellar Solution. Paper SPE 14911presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 20-23 April. doi:10.2118/14911-MS.
Delshad, M., Delshad, M., Pope, G.A., and Lake, L.W. 1987. Two- and Three-Phase RelativePermeabilities of Micellar Fluids. SPE Form Eval 2 (3):327-337; Trans., AIME, 283. SPE-13581-PA. doi:10.2118/13581-PA.
Delshad, M., Han, W., Pope, G.A., Sepehrnoori, K., Wu, W., Yang, R., andZhao, L. 1999. Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer FloodPredictions for the Karamay Oil Field. J. Pet Tech 51(1): 34-35. Synopsis of paper SPE-39610 presented at the 1998 SPE/DOE ImprovedOil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 22-19 April. doi: 10.2118/39610-MS.
Delshad, M., Pope, G.A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1996. A compositional simulatorfor modeling surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation, 1. Formulation. J.Contamin. Hydrol. 23 (4): 303-327.doi:10.1016/0169-7722(95)00106-9.
Delshad, M., Pope, G.A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2007. Modeling WettabilityAlteration Using Chemical EOR Processes in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.Final report, DOE No. DE-FC26-04NT15529, NETL, University of Texas at Austin,Austin, Texas.
Downs, H.H. and Hoover, P.D. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery by WettabilityAlteration. Laboratory and Field Pilot Waterflood Studies. In Oil FieldChemistry: Enhanced Recovery and Production Stimulation, ed. J.K. Borchardtand T.F. Yen, No. 396. Washington, DC: ACS Symposium Series, American ChemicalSociety.
Hirasaki, G. and Zhang, D.L. 2004. Surface Chemistry of Oil RecoveryFrom Fractured, Oil-Wet, Carbonate Formation. SPE J. 9(2): 151-162. SPE-88365-PA. doi: 10.2118/88365-PA.
Hirasaki, G., Miller C.A., Pope, G.A., and Jackson, R.E. 2004. SurfactantBased Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control. Annual Technical Report(July 2003-June 2004), Contract No. DE-FC26-03NT15406, US DOE, Washington, DC(July 2004).
Jin, M. 1995. A Study of Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Characterization andSurfactant Remediation. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin,Austin, Texas.
Kamath, J., Meyer, R.F., and Nakagawa, F.M. 2001. Understanding Waterflood Residual OilSaturation of Four Carbonate Rock Types. Paper SPE 71505 presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September-3October. doi: 10.2118/71505-MS.
Lam, A. and Schechter, R.S. 1987. The theory of diffusionin microemulsion. J. of Colloid and Interface Science120 (1): 56-63. doi:10.1016/0021-9797(87)90322-5.
Ma, S., Zhang, X., and Morrow, N.R. 1995. A Characteristic Length forScaling of Mass Transfer Between Matrix and Fractures. Paper SPE 30232available from SPE, Richardson, Texas.
Milter, J. and Austad, T. 1996. Chemical Flooding of Oil Reservoirs, 6.Evaluation of the Mechanisms for Oil Expulsion by Spontaneous Imbibition ofBrine with and without Surfactant in Water-Wet, Low-Permeable, Chalk Material.Colloids and Surfaces A: Physico. Eng. Aspects 113 (1-3):269-278.
Mohanty, K.K. 1983. MultiphaseFlow in Porous Media: III. Oil Mobilization, Transverse Dispersion, andWettability. Paper SPE 12127 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, 5-8 October, San Francisco. doi:10.2118/12127-MS.
Morrow, N.R., Cram, P.J., and McCaffery, F.G. 1973. Displacement Studies in Dolomite withWettability Control by Octanoic Acid. SPE J. 13 (4):221-232; Trans., AIME, 255. SPE-3993-PA. doi:10.2118/3993-PA.
Najafabadi, N.F. 2005. Modeling Wettability Alteration in NaturallyFractured Reservoirs. MS thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas(December 2005).
Roehl, P.O. and Choquette, P.W. 1985. Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs.New York City: Casebooks in Earth Sciences, Springer-Verlag.
Saad, N. and Sepehrnoori, K. 1989. Simulation of Big Muddy SurfactantPilot. SPE Res Eng 4 (1): 24-34; Trans., AIME,287. SPE-17549-PA. doi: 10.2118/17549-PA.
Seethepalli, A., Adibhatla, B., and Mohanty, K.K. 2004. Physicochemical Interactions DuringSurfactant Flooding of Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE J.9 (4): 411-418. SPE-89423-PA. doi: 10.2118/89423-PA.
Snell, J.S., Wadleigh, E.E., and Tilden, J. 2000. Fracture Characterization a KeyFactor in Yates Steam Pilot Design and Implementation. Paper SPE 59060presented at the SPE International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition inMexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, 1-3 February. doi: 10.2118/59060-MS.
Spinler, E.A. and Baldwin, B.A. 2000. Surfactant Induced WettabilityAlteration in Porous Media. In Surfactants: Fundamentals and Applications inthe Petroleum Industry, ed. L.L. Schramm, 159-202. Cambridge, UK: CambridgeUniversity Press.
Stoll, W.M., Hofman, J.P., Ligtheim, D.J., Faber, M.J., and van den Hoek,P.J. 2008. Toward Field-ScaleWettability Modification--The Limitation of Diffusive Transport. SPE ResEval & Eng 11 (3): 633-640. SPE-107095-PA. doi:10.2118/107095-PA.
Tang, G. and Kovscek, A.R. 2002. Experimental Study of Heavy OilProduction From Diatomite by Water Imbibition at Elevated Temperature.Paper SPE 75132 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium,Tulsa, 13-17 April. doi: 10.2118/75132-MS.
Weiss, W., Xie, X., Weiss, J., Subramanium, V., Taylor, A., and Edens, F.2004. Artificial Intelligence Usedto Evaluate 23 Single-Well Surfactant Soak Treatments. SPE Res Eval& Eng 9 (3): 209-216. SPE-89457-PA. doi:10.2118/89457-PA.
Yang, H.D. and Wadleigh, E.E. 2000. Dilute Surfactant IOR--DesignImprovement for Massive, Fractured Carbonate Applications. Paper SPE 59009presented at the SPE International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition inMexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, 1-3 February. doi: 10.2118/59009-MS.
Yu, L., Kleppe, H., Kaarstad, T., Skjaeveland, S.M., Evje, S., and Fjelde,I. 2008. Modeling of Wettability Alteration Processes in Carbonate OilReservoirs. Networks and Heterogeneous Media 3 (1):149-183.
Zubari, H.K. and Babu Sivakumar, V.C. 2003. Single Well Testes to Determine theEfficiency of Alkaline-Surfactant Injection in a Highly Oil-Wet LimestoneReservoir. Paper SPE 81464 presented at the Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain,9-12 June. doi: 10.2118/81464-MS.