Study Uses Wellbore, Reservoir, Fracture Models To Determine Productivity
- Chris Carpenter (JPT Technology Editor)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- July 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 58 - 61
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 55 since 2007
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This article, written by JPT Technology Editor Chris Carpenter, contains highlights of paper SPE 190860, “Evaluating the Impact of Lateral Landing, Wellbore Trajectory, and Hydraulic Fractures To Determine Unconventional Reservoir Productivity,” by Piyush Pankaj, Priyavrat Shukla, SPE, Ge Yuan, and Xu Zhang, Schlumberger, prepared for the 2018 SPE Europec featured at the 80th EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11–14 June. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
Inconsistent production performance from wells completed in similar pay zones has been observed when shale formations are exploited through horizontal wells. This paper demonstrates the need to couple the wellbore model to the reservoir-simulation and hydraulic-fracturing model in shale formations to optimize well landing, trajectory profile, and long-term productivity. The authors aim to demonstrate and deconvolute the well-trajectory plan with an integrated parametric study that helps to improve well productivity.
To plan a well profile, two critical pieces of information are required: Lateral landing depth, and well trajectory originating from the landing depth. To reach the targeted landing depth, the well trajectory undergoes a certain buildup of curvature deviating from the vertical section and, eventually, when the landing depth is reached, the designed trajectory profile is maintained and continued for the horizontal wellbore. The authors evaluated well trajectory and well productivity on the basis of the effect of the following parameters to guide well-trajectory planning:
- Hydraulic-fracturing fluid
- Natural fracture network
- Wellbore trajectory, undulations, toe up, toe down, or combinations
- Production operations such as proppant flowback, fracturing choke management, and well shutdown
Geological Review of the Model
A 3D earth model in the Permian Basin for the Wolfcamp shale was used to develop a work flow for determining well landing and well trajectory. The Wolfcamp shale covers most of the Midland Basin and ranges in thickness from 200 ft in the north of the basin to 2,600 ft in the south. The entire play is dominated by a fine-grained, naturally fractured source rock. The depths range from 5,500 to 11,000 ft. The Wolfcamp is slightly overpressured, with the pressure gradient varying between 0.55 and 0.70 psi/ft. In the past few years, the Wolfcamp has become one of the most profitable and exploited unconventional plays in the US. Almost all of the operators are collecting a significant share of their well inventory, which yields over 1,000 BOPD routinely in initial-production rate. The production declines within a short period (6 to 9 months). The recovery factors remain in the single digits for most operators. The Wolfcamp, Spraberry, and Bone Spring formations are the most prolific in the basin.
Defining Landing Depth
The proposed solution considers applying an end-to-end cycle of a streamlined work flow that starts with sampling engineered landing location points in the geomodel defined by the user on the basis of reservoir-quality (RQ) cutoffs. The first step is building the geological model around the sweet spot. This geological model contains petrophysical and mechanical properties of the rock along the depth of the targeted interval.
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