Development of Small-Molecule CO2 Thickeners
- Chris Carpenter (JPT Technology Editor)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- July 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 145 - 147
- 2014. Society of Petroleum Engineers
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- 178 since 2007
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This article, written by JPT Technology Editor Chris Carpenter, contains highlights of paper SPE 169039, "Development of Small-Molecule CO2 Thickeners for EOR and Fracturing," by J.J. Lee, S. Cummings, A. Dhuwe, R.M. Enick, and E.J. Beckman, University of Pittsburgh, and R. Perry, M. Doherty, and M. O'Brien, General Electric Global Research, prepared for the 2014 SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12-16 April. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
The ideal carbon dioxide (CO2) thickener would be an affordable, safe, water-insoluble additive that could dissolve in CO2 at typical wellhead and reservoir conditions during CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and elevate the viscosity of CO2 to the same value as that of the oil. Further, the additive would not require heating or an organic cosolvent to achieve dissolution. In this paper, a strategy for designing a novel small-molecule CO2 thickener is detailed.
Despite its longstanding success as an EOR technique, CO2 flooding does not recover all of the oil in the formation regardless of whether the reservoir has been waterflooded previously. Typically, primary recovery results in the production of approximately 5–15% of the original oil in place (OOIP), while secondary recovery is responsible for an additional 20–40% of OOIP.
The fundamental causes of this disappointingly low oil recovery can be traced to the density and viscosity of dense CO2. First, the low density of high-pressure CO2 relative to oil promotes gravity override of the CO2, reducing oil recovery in the lower portions of the formation. Second, the viscosity of dense liquid or supercritical CO2 at typical CO2- flooding conditions is approximately 0.05–0.10 cp, a value so much lower than typical oil- and brine-viscosity values that it results in an unfavorable mobility ratio. This leads to viscous fingering, which in turn leads to early CO2 breakthrough, high CO2-usage ratios, delayed CO2 production, depressed oil-production rates, and low-percent OOIP recovery. These problems can be worse when the injection well is completed in two or more producing zones.
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