Brittle Failure and Low-Temperature Welding
- K. Winterton (Physical Metallurgy Division, Department Of Energy, Mines And Resources)
- Document ID
- Petroleum Society of Canada
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- January 1969
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 35 - 43
- 1969. Petroleum Society of Canada
- 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 6.1.5 Human Resources, Competence and Training, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
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The causes of brittle failure are explained, and the aspects of crackpropagation and crack initiation treated separately. The selection of steelsfor service at low temperatures is considered, and some instances are given ofspecial code requirements. General advice is presented for the minimization ofthe problems of brittle failure. Welding in cold weather affects personnel,materials and equipment. Metallurgical factors are also involved, as revealedby experimentation and practical experience. Code requirements are explained.Practical advice is given for overcoming the problems that may be en-countered.
THERE ARE ALL KINDS OF TROUBLES that can develop in equipment innorthern climates. These may result from improper selection of materials,unsuitable over-all design, inappropriate design or choice of particularcomponents, manufacturing defects with special significance for operation atlow temperatures, etc.
It is not surprising that suitable equipment and materials could in mosteases be provided, but that this would entail unwelcome increases in costs.Moreover, in
Canada at least, the problems have been attacked piecemeal, and there is nosystematic approach available to those who are not immediately deterred by theprospect of paying more for what they need. At the University of Alaska, theengineering faculty places emphasis on special training of students in theunique aspects of work in the North. in the U.S.S.R.., a more unified approachto northern problems has been developing, and they considered the establishmentof a Research Institute for Technical Problems of the North
The present paper is limited to the consideration of two aspects of theproblem; firstly, brittle fracture, which is certainly, the most importantsingle material problem, and secondly, the effect of low temperatures inwelding.
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