The Power of Real-Time Monitoring and Interpretation in Wireline Formation Testing-Case Studies
- Hani Elshahawi (Shell Intl. E&P Inc.) | Mohamed Naguib Hashem (Shell Intl. E&P Inc.) | Mario Ardila (Schlumberger Oilfield Services) | Cosan Ayan (Schlumberger Oilfield Services)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 9-12 October, Dallas, Texas
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2005. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 3.3.6 Integrated Modeling, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 5.5.11 Formation Testing (e.g., Wireline, LWD), 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.6.5 Tracers, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.6.3 Pressure Transient Testing, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 6.1.5 Human Resources, Competence and Training, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
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Modern wireline formation testers (WFT's) are able to collect a massive amount of data at multiple depths, thus helping to quantify changes in rock and fluid properties along the wellbore, to define hydraulic flow units, and to understand the reservoir architecture. They are being routinely used in a wide range of applications that spans pressure and mobility profiling vs. depth, fluid sampling, downhole fluid analysis; interval pressure transient testing (IPTT), and micro fracturing. Due to the complex tool strings and the elaborate operational aspects involved in wireline formation testing, success requires detailed upfront planning and procedural design as well as real-time operational and interpretational support.
It is becoming increasingly critical for operating and service company experts to remotely monitor and interpret WFT surveys in real-time through web-based systems. The importance of meeting all rock and fluid data acquisition objectives cannot be overstated, given the high cost of offshore operations and the implications of obtaining false or misleading information. The main objective of real-time monitoring remains to assure that the planned data is acquired according to pre-established procedures and contingency plans. However, even in developed reservoirs, unexpected circumstances arise, requiring immediate response and modifications to the pre-planned job procedures.Unexpectedly low or high mobilities, probe plugging, unanticipated fluid types, presence of multiple phases, and excessive fluid contamination are but a few examples of such circumstances that would require real-time decision making and procedural modifications. Real-time decisions may include acquiring more pressure data points, extending sampling depths to several zones, extending or shortening sampling times, repeating micro-hydraulic fracture re-opening/closure cycles, as well as real-time permeability, composition, or anisotropy interpretation to determine optimum transient durations.
This paper describes several examples of formation tester surveys that have been remotely monitored in real-time to ensure that all WFT evaluation objectives are met. The power of real-time monitoring and interpretation will be illustrated through these case studies.
It is a common practice to have wireline formation tester (WFT) surveys in the evaluation program of newly drilled or existing cased wells. The applications vary from offshore deepwater exploration and appraisal wells, to old cased and hole development wells later in the life of a field.Given the wide range of objectives and combinations, each WFT evaluation program is unique.Some may only include a pressure gradient survey for reservoir depletion and communication information whereas others may seek information on the precise nature of the hydrocarbon fluids and water in terms of chemical and physical properties, phase behavior, and commingling tendencies. Cased hole surveys might look for bypassed hydrocarbon zones or have objectives, which could not be achieved during the open hole phase. Regardless of the type of surveys performed, understanding the exploration and appraisal or field development objectives and translating these into acquisition objectives is essential for success.
Figures 1 and 2 schematically illustrate the real-time monitoring concept in which data is viewed by authorized personnel in real-time anywhere around the world and via which the logging field engineer and wellsite witness virtually collaborate with service and operating company experts throughout the job. This paper includes several examples of WFT surveys that were monitored and supervised in real-time.The cases presented span the entire spectrum of WFT applications including pressures and gradients, sampling and downhole fluid analysis, interval pressure transient testing, and microFracturing.
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