Ninth SPE Comparative Solution Project: A Reexamination of Black-Oil Simulation
- J.E. Killough (U. of Houston)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, 12-15 February, San Antonio, Texas
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 1995. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.9 Miscible Methods, 5.4.3 Gas Cycling, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.6.5 Tracers, 6.6.3 Social Responsibility and Development, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation
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The Ninth SPE Comparative Solution Project presented in the following paper provides a reexamination of black-oil simulation based on a model of moderate size (9,000 cells) and with a high degree of heterogeneity provided by a geostatistically-based permeability field. Nine participants provided data for the comparison which is based on a dipping reservoir with twenty-five somewhat randomly placed producers and a single water injector.
Results showed that significant agreement could be achieved for this problem on the basis of total production rates, saturations, and reservoir pressures. On the other hand, rates for some individual wells did show variations of as much as 30% due to differing treatments of well flowing bottomhole pressures. All participants were able to simulate the study in fewer than sixty time-steps with an average of 4-5 Newton iterations per step. In addition, the results showed that this moderate-sized problem could be simulated in only a few minutes in a workstation environment for the two plus years of data.
The SPE Comparative Solution Projects have to this date comprised studies over the past fifteen years which involved varying aspects of reservoir simulation. The first two comparative solution projects focused on black-oil simulation for Cartesian and radial grid geometries. More recent studies have been devoted to specialized simulations such as compositional, dual porosity, thermal, and miscible; or they have looked at treatment of horizontal wells and gridding.
The purpose of the current project is two-fold: to provide an update to previous black-oil based projects and to investigate the complications brought about by a the high degree of heterogeneity in a geostatistically-based permeability field.
Description of the Reservoir Simulators
From the first comparative solution project to the present, the capabilities of black-oil reservoir simulators have increased tremendously. Currently, the linear equation solutions are generally performed by a preconditioned conjugate-gradient-like method such as incomplete LU factorization preconditioned ORTHOMIN. These solvers have predominantly replaced techniques such as SIP and LSOR for the more difficult non-symmetric cases resulting from highly-heterogeneous and fully-implicit solutions. Well treatments have become more sophisticated with almost all simulators providing some form of treatment of implicit bottomhole pressures for rate constrained wells.
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