Unconventional Measurements Bootstrap Reservoir Simulation
- W. D. VonGonten (W.D. VonGonten and Co.) | Terry Woods (W.D. VonGonten and Co.) | Yi-Kun Yang (W.D. VonGonten and Co.) | Tim Picha (W.D. VonGonten and Co.) | Garrett Lindsay (W.D. VonGonten and Co.) | Safdar Ali (W.D. VonGonten and Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 26-29 October, Virtual
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2020. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 3 Production and Well Operations, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 2 Well completion, 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.5.8 History Matching, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.2 Fluid Characterization, 5.6.2 Core Analysis
- Hydraulic Fracturing, Unconventional reservoir, Production, Reservoir Simulation, Rock Measurements
- 31 in the last 30 days
- 100 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Production history matching data is an important step in any study that seeks to optimize unconventional completions and well development criteria. Understanding the reservoir mechanisms during production allows for better optimization of the hydraulic fracture system. Generating a model that fits historical data can be easy but honoring the true petrophysics and fluid dynamics of the reservoir is often challenging. Some of the major challenges during reservoir simulation are uncertainties in water saturation, permeability, phase behavior, and effective fracture surface area during production. This paper discusses how fit-for-purpose core measurements help reduce the uncertainty in these parameters, ultimately requiring a multiple porosity reservoir simulation model to account for these improved measurements and understandings.
Industry accepted core analysis techniques under-estimate reservoir water saturation due to loss of water from evaporation and core handling techniques (preservation, crushing, time). Proper evaluation of the void space will be shown and how this is better calibrated to field data. A review of how steady-state liquid permeability testing provides better estimates for reservoir permeability and deliverability in shale reservoirs will be discussed. Coupling these measurements with imbibition effects from hydraulic fracturing fluids and lab studies showing oil-wet and water-wet pore systems acting independently of each other, a slightly "outside of the box" reservoir simulation model was needed to mimic these physics.
The proposed reservoir simulation methodology consists of multiple porosities and was developed to incorporate near-wellbore hydraulic fracture effects that are observed during lab testing. Combining this methodology with other lab measurements and a fully three-dimensional (3D) hydraulic fracture model, the number of "knobs" that need to be turned to get a good history match are reduced.
Two examples will be presented in this paper showing how the proposed model better honors the physics of lab measurements and provides the user more flexibility during reservoir simulation, especially when buildup data is available. Reducing the uncertainty in these parameters has provided a workflow that helps minimize the multiple non-unique realizations during the history match process and provides a more reliable model for the engineer while reducing the amount of time needed to obtain a match.
|File Size||8 MB||Number of Pages||18|
Ali, M., Ali, S., Mathur, A., and Belanger, C. 2020. Organic Shale Spontaneous Imbibition and Monitoring with NMR to Evaluate In-Situ Saturations, Wettability and Molecular Sieving. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Virtual, 20-23 July. https://doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2020-3096.
Ali, S., Barnes, C., Mathur, A. 2020. Impact of Completions Fluids Chemistry on Hydrocarbon Effective Permeability of Organic Shales. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Virtual, 20-22 July. https://doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2020-3158.
Bennion, D.B., Bietz, R.F., Thomas, F.B. 1994. Reductions in the Productivity of Oil and Low Permeability Gas Reservoir Due to Aqueous Phase Trapping. J Can Pet Technol 33 (9): 45–54. PETSOC-94-09-05. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94-09-05.
Bertoncello, A., Wallace, J., Blyton, C. 2014. Imbibition and Water Blockage in Unconventional Reservoirs: Well Management Implications during Flowback and Early Production. SPE Res Eval & Eng. 17(4): 497–506. https://doi.org/10.2118/167698-PA.
Haghshenas, B., Clarkson, C.R., and Chen, S. 2013. Multi-Porosity Multi-Permeability Models for Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Conference Canada, Calgary, Canada, 5-7 November. SPE-167220-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167220-MS.
Hinkley, R.E., Wang, Q., Wang. K. 2013. Flexible and Efficient N-Porosity, Full-Featured Simulator Design, and Application. Presented at the Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, TX, 18-20 February. SPE-163619-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163619-MS.
Holditch. S.A. 1979. Factors Affecting Water Blocking and Gas Flow from Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells. J Pet Technol 31 (12): 1515–1524. SPE-7561-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7561-PA.
Hudson, J.D., Faruk, C., Guillermo, M. 2012. Modeling Multiple-Porosity Transport in Gas-Bearing Shale Formations. Presented at the Latin America and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Mexico City, Mexico, 16-18 April. SPE-153535. https://doi.org/10.2118/153535-MS.
Jacobs, T. 2014. Renewing Mature Shale Wells Through Refracturing. J Pet Technol. 66 (04): 52–60, April. https://doi.org/10.2118/0414-0052-JPT.
Lan. Q, Yassin, M.R., Habibi, A. 2015. Relative Permeability of Unconventional Rocks with Dual-Wettability Pore-Network. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, 20-22 July. URTEC-2153642-MS. https://doi.org/10.1530/URTEC-2015-2153642.
Lopez, B. and Aguilera, R. 2014. Petrophysical Quantification of Multiple Porosities in Shale Petroleum Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 30 September – 2 October. SPE-171638-MS https://doi.org/10.2118/171638-MS.
Mathur, A., Ali, S., Barnes, C., 2020. Permeability Measurements on Shales using NMR Spectroscopy. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Virtual, 20-22 July. https://doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2020-3203.
Ramiro-Ramirez, S., Bhandari, A.R., Flemings, P.B. 2020. Porosity and Permeabiltiy Heterogeneity in the Upper Wolfcamp, Delaware Basin, West Texas: Implications for Production. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Virtual, 20-22 July. https://doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2020-2105.
Ravi, V.R., Ali, S., Dash, T., 2020. Water Saturation in Unconventionals: Myth Busted. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Virtual, 20-22 July. https://doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2020-3002.
Tinni. A., Fathi, E., Agarwal, R. 2012. Shale Permeability Measurements on Plugs and Crushed Samples. Presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 30 Oct. – 1 Nov. SPE-162235-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/162235-MS.
Thompson, J.W., Fan, L., Grant, D. 2010. An Overview of Horizontal Well Completions in the Haynesville Shale. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources & International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19-21 October. SPE-136757-MS. SPE-136757-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/136757-MS.
Suarez-Rivera, R., Von Gonten, W.D., Graham, J. 2016. Optimizing Lateral Landing Depth for Improved Well Production. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, 1-3 Aug. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2016-2460515.
Suarez-Rivera, R., Dontsev, E., and Abell, B. 2019. Quantifying the Induced Stresses During Stacked, Multi-Stage, Multi-Well Completions to Define Stimulation Sequencing and Optimize Pad Productivity. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, CO, 22-24 July. https://doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2019-892.
Yan, B., Alfi, M., Wang, Y. 2013a. A New Approach for the Simulation of Fluid Flow in Unconventional Reservoirs through Multiple Permeability Modeling. Presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, LA, 30 September-2 October. SPE-166173-MS https://doi.org/10.2118/166173-MS.
Yan, B., Wang, Y., and Killough, J. 2013b. Beyond Dual-Porosity Modeling for the Simulation of Complex Flow Mechanisms in Shale Reservoirs. Presented at the Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, TX, 18-20 February. SPE-163651-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163651-MS.
Yan, B., Alfi, M., Cao, Y. 2015. Extended Abstract: Advanced Multiple Porosity Model for Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 6-9 December. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-18308-MS.
Zhang, J., Ouyang, L., Hill, A.D. 2014. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Reduced Fracture Conductivity due to Proppant Embedment in Shale Reservoirs, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 27-29 October. SPE-170775-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170775-MS.
Zhang, J., Zhu, D., and Hill, A.D. 2015. Water-Induced Fracture Conductivity Damage in Shale Formations. Presented at the Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, TX, 3-5 February. SPE-173346-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173346-MS/.