Study of Oil Recovery Mechanisms in Complex Natural Fracture Systems using Embedded Discrete Fracture Models
- Hai Vo (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Brad Mallison (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Jairam Kamath (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Robin Hui (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Gaelle Dufour (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 26-29 October, Virtual
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2020. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8 Unconventional and Complex Reservoirs, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir
- Fractured reservoir simulation, EDFM, DPDK, USDFM, Recovery mechanism
- 36 in the last 30 days
- 110 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Accurate evaluation of recovery mechanisms in fractured reservoirs is challenging due to the large permeability contrast at the matrix-fracture interface. Dual Porosity-Dual Permeability (DPDK) models are typically used in field-scale simulations but can be biased by their use of idealized fracture networks and matrix-fracture interactions. Unstructured Discrete Fracture Models (USDFMs) are able to capture the complex physics accurately but can be computationally demanding. Embedded Discrete Fracture Models (EDFMs) integrate discrete fracture networks with a structured matrix grid and are the focus of this study.
Our study considers dense and sparse fracture networks extracted from a field-scale fracture carbonate reservoir model. EDFMs are constructed for different matrix grid resolutions, and simulations are performed to evaluate gravity drainage, spontaneous imbibition, viscous displacement. In each case, EDFM results are compared with highly refined USDFM reference solutions and equivalent DPDK simulations.
We improve the EDFM single phase matrix-fracture transfer function to account for pseudo-steady state and fracture interactions. In the cases of gravity drainage, EDFM simulations converge to the fine scale reference solutions with matrix grid refinement. For the coarser grids, the new matrix fracture function gives much better results than the ones reported in the literature. For spontaneous imbibition, both EDFM and USDFM overpredict the rate of spontaneous imbibition with coarse matrix grids, but the overestimation is less severe than with DPDK. In viscous displacements, EDFM overestimates recovery with coarse grids and displacement efficiency diminishes with refinement. DPDK underpredicts recovery from viscous displacement at all resolutions.
|File Size||11 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Alali, A., Hamon, F.P., Mallison, B.T., and Tchelepi, H.A (2020). Finite-volume simulation of capillary-dominated flow in matrix-fracture systems using interface conditions. Computational Geosciences, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10596-020-09982-1.
Blaskovich, F. T., Cain, G. M., Sonier, F., Waldren, D., and Webb, S. J. (1983). A Multicomponent Isothermal System for Efficient Reservoir Simulation. Presented at the Middle East Oil Technical Conference and Exhibition, 14-17 March, Manama, Bahrain. SPE-11480-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/11480-MS.
Brenner, K., Hennicker, J., Masson, R., and Samier, P. (2018). Hybrid-dimensional modelling of two-phase flow through fractured porous media with enhanced matrix fracture transmission conditions. Journal of Computational Physics 357, 100–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2017.12.003.
Chai, Z., Tang, H., He, Y., Killough, J., and Wang, Y. (2018). Uncertainty Quantification of the Fracture Network with a Novel Fractured Reservoir Forward Model. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 24-26 September, Dallas, Texas, USA. SPE-191395-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/191395-MS.
Chang, M., (1993). Deriving the Shape Factor of a Fractured Rock Matrix. Technical Report NIPER-696 (DE93000170), National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), Bartlesville OK. https://doi.org/10.2172/10192737.
Dean, R. H. and Lo, L. L. (1988). Simulations of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Reservoir Engineering. https://doi.org/10.2118/14110-PA.
Dershowitz, B., LaPointe, P., Eiben, T., and Wei, L. (2000). Integration of Discrete Feature Network Methods with Conventional Simulator Approaches. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 3(2), 165–170. https://doi.org/10.2118/62498-PA.
Hajibeygi, H., Karvounis, D., and Jenny, P. (2011). A hierarchical fracture model for the iterative multiscale finite volume method. Journal of Computational Physics, 230, 8729–8743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2011.08.021.
Hamon, F.P., Mallison, B.T., and Tchelepi, H.A (2018). Implicit hybrid upwinding for two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media with buoyancy and capillarity. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 331, 701–727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2017.10.008.
Hill, A. C. and Thomas, G. W. (1985). A New Approach for Simulating Complex Fractured Reservoirs. Middle East Oil Technical Conference and Exhibition, 11-14 March, Bahrain. SPE-13537-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/13537-MS.
Hui, M.-H., Dufour, G., Vitel, S., Muron, P., Tavakoli, R., Rousset, M., Rey, A., and Mallison, B. T. (2019). A Robust Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling Workflow for Complex Processes in Field-Scale Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Conference, April 10–11, Galveston, Texas, USA. SPE 193827. https://doi.org/10.2118/193827-MS.
Hui, M.-H., Heidary-Fyrozjaee, M., and Kamath, J. (2014). Scaling Gravity-Drainage Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs Using 3D Discrete Fracture Models. Presented at the SPE Annual Caspian Technical Conference and Exhibition, Astana, Kazakhstan, 12-14 November. SPE-172295-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/172295-MS.
Hui, M.-H., Karimi-Fard, M., Mallison, B., and Durlofsky, L. J. (2018). A general modeling framework for simulating complex recovery processes in fractured reservoirs at different resolutions. SPE Journal, 23, 598–613. https://doi.org/10.2118/182621-PA.
Hui, M.-H., Mallison, B. T., Fyrozjaee, M. H., and Narr, W. (2013). The Upscaling of Discrete Fracture Models for Faster, Coarse-Scale Simulations of IOR and EOR Processes for Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 30 September – 2 October. SPE-166075-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166075-MS.
Hui, M.-H., Mallison, B. T., and Lim, K.-T. (2008). An innovative workflow to model fractures in a giant carbonate reservoir. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3-5 December. IPTC-12572-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-12572-MS.
Jiang, J. and Younis, R.M. (2017). An improved projection-based embedded discrete fracture model (pEDFM) for multiphase flow in fractured reservoirs. Advances in Water Resources. 109, 267–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.017.
Karimi-Fard, M., Durlofsky, L. J., and Aziz, K. (2003). An Efficient Discrete Fracture Model Applicable for General Purpose Reservoir Simulators. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, 3-5 February, Houston, Texas. SPE-79699-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/79699-MS.
Lee, S.H., Lough, M.L., and Jensen, C.L. (2001). Hierarchical modeling of flow in naturally fractured formations with multiple length scales. Water Resources Research, 37(3), 443–455. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900340.
Li, L. and Lee, S.H. (2008). Efficient field-scale simulation of black oil in a naturally fractured reservoir through discrete fracture networks and homogenized media. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 11, 750–758. https://doi.org/10.2118/103901-PA.
Lim, K.T. and Aziz, K. (1995). Matrix-Fracture Transfer Shape Factors for Dual Porosity Simulators. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(95)00010-F.
Moinfar, A., Varavei, A., Sepehrnoori, K., and Johns, R.T. (2014). Development of an efficient embedded discrete fracture model for 3D compositional reservoir simulation in fractured reservoirs. SPE Journal, 19, 289–303. https://doi.org/10.2118/154246-PA.
Rey, A., Schembre, J., and Wen, X.-H. (2019). Calibration of the Water Flowback in Unconventional Reservoirs with Complex Fractures using Embedded Discrete Fracture Model EDFM. Presented at the SPE Liquids-Rich Basins Conference - North America, 7-8 November, Odessa, Texas, USA. SPE-197110-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/197110-MS.
Tene, M., Bosma, S., Al Kobaisi, M.S., and Hajibeygi, H. (2017). Projection-based embedded discrete fracture model (pEDFM). Advances in Water Resources, 105, 205–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.05.009.
Vitel, S. and Souche, L. (2007). Unstructured upgridding and transmissibility upscaling for preferential flow paths in 3D fractured reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, February 26-28, Houston, Texas, USA. SPE-106483-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106483-MS.
Vo, H., Kamath, J., and Hui, M.H. (2019). High fidelity simulation of recovery mechanisms in complex natural fracture systems. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Conference, April 10-11, Galveston, Texas, USA. SPE 193864. https://doi.org/10.2118/193864-MS.
Xu, Y. and Sepehrnoori, K. (2019). Development of an Embedded Discrete Fracture Model for Field-Scale Reservoir Simulation with Complex Corner-Point Grids. SPE Journal, 24(4), 1552–1575. https://doi.org/10.2118/195572-PA.