Correlating Calcium Carbonate Scale Risk with Field Experience Data
- Kari Ramstad (Equinor ASA) | Kristian Sandengen (Equinor ASA) | Anthony Frank Mitchell (Equinor ASA) | Erlend Moldrheim (Equinor ASA)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition, 24-25 June, Virtual
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2020. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2 Well completion, 7.2 Risk Management and Decision-Making, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.6 Acidizing, 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment, 7 Management and Information, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 1.8 Formation Damage, 4.3.4 Scale, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 1.8 Formation Damage
- Thermodynamic modelling, Field experiences, Calcium carbonate scale, Well design, Scale management strategy
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 172 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) scale formation in production wells and process systems is a well-known challenge in the oil and gas industry. Various strategies are selected to prevent scale formation (proactive, e.g. by scale inhibitors) or to remove scale when it has formed (reactive, e.g. by acid treatment), depending on the severity of the problem and the complexity of the production system. Lack of access for remedial actions may be a limiting factor in subsea and unmanned installations and scaling may represent a larger risk of production losses or system failures.
The scale management strategy and design of new wells during field development are based on thermodynamic calculations, kinetic studies and field observations. Experience has shown that wells with high temperature and high pressure drops are more prone to downhole calcium carbonate scaling.
Field experience has been collected and systemized based on operations of oil and gas-condensate fields in the North Sea and Norwegian Sea. The observations have been compared to thermodynamic calculations and aligned to kinetic modelling, defining the critical saturation ratio (SRCaCO3) for scaling. The result is a graphic which has proved to be a powerful tool in planning of new wells and is described in this paper.
The Oseberg field in the North Sea is producing from oil and gas-condensate wells at various reservoir temperatures (98-128°C). The field comprises platform and subsea production systems and one unmanned wellhead platform. Seawater has been injected for pressure support in some areas, while gas injection or depletion are the driving forces in other segments. The CaCO3 scale potential and management strategy have been evaluated for new wells in a field life perspective. Risk of production losses and maximizing cost benefit are key selection criteria, and the variety of wells requires individual solutions. The paper discusses the need for downhole continuous injection of scale inhibitor, compared to batch scale inhibitor squeeze treatments and/or acid treatments. Guidelines for optimum operation of these wells to avoid scaling are presented.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||24|
MultiScale 8.2©, scale prediction software provided by Expro Petrotech, Haugesund, Norway. NORSOK Process system design. Edition 1, 2014. https://www.standard.no/en/webshop/ProductCatalog/ProductPresentation/?ProductID=708100.
Oddo, J. E. and Tomson, M. B. 1994. Why Scale Forms in the Oil Field and Methods to Predict It. SPE Production & Facilities 9 (1): 47–54. SPE-21710-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/21710-PA.
Ramstad, K., Tydal, T., Askvik, K. M. and Fotland, P. 2005. Predicting Carbonate Scale in Oil Producers from High-Temperature Reservoirs. SPE Journal 10 (4): 363–373. SPE-87430-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/87430-PA.
Ramstad, K., Rohde, H. C., Dalland, A., Ponomareva, E. and Johansen, P. 2012. Flow Assurance in Complex Topside Processes with Subsea Tie-ins and Multiple Fluid Systems. Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, UK, 30-31 May. SPE-155036-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/155036-MS.
Berner, R. A. 1975. The role of magnesium in the crystal growth of calcite and aragonite from sea water. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 39 (4): 489–504. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016703775901027.
Broby, M., Neteland, M., Ma, X. 2016. Scaling of Calcium Carbonate on Heated Surfaces - Crystallization or Particulate Fouling? Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. 11-12 May. SPE-179901-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179901-MS.
Dobberschütz, S., Nielsen, M. R., Sand, K. K. 2018. The mechanisms of crystal growth inhibition by organic and inorganic inhibitors. Nature Communications 9 (1). 1578. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85045933739&doi=10.1038%2fs41467-018-04022-0&partnerID=40&md5=b91d153f55b8ff4cf9932e3a4875b4a0.
Egeberg, P. K. and Aagaard, P. 1989. Origin and evolution of formation waters on the Norwegian shelf. Applied Geochemistry, 4: 131–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-2927(89)90044-9
Fleming, N., Ramstad, K., Eriksen, S. H., Moldrheim, E. and Johansen, T. R. 2007. Development and Implementation of a Scale-Management Strategy for Oseberg Sør. SPE Production & Operations 22 (3): 307–317. SPE-100371-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/100371-PA.
Ramstad, K., McCartney, R., Aarrestad, H. D., Lien, S. K., Sæther Ø. and Johnsen, R. I. 2017. The Johan Sverdrup Field: Origin of Sulfate-Rich Formation Water and Impact on Scale-Management Strategy. SPE Production & Operations 32 (1): 73–85. SPE-179895-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179895-PA.
Hatscher, S., Kiselnikov, M., Ugueto, L., Norheim, B., Olsen, V., Malmanger, E. and Alvestad, A. 2019. Nine Years Operational Experience of the Vega field – Design, Experience and Lessons Learned. Paper presented at the SPE One Day Seminar, Bergen, Norway, 14 May. SPE-195613-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/195613-MS
Hustad, B. M., Svela, O. G., Olsen, J. H., Ramstad, K. and Tjomsland, T. 2012. Downhole Chemical Injection Lines – Why Do They Fail? Experiences, Challenges and Application of New Test Methods. Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, UK. 30-31 May. SPE-154967-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154967-MS.
Lien, A., Midttveit, Ø., Gyllensten, A. J. and Halvorsen, M. 2019. AICD Implementation on Oseberg H Vestflanken 2. Paper presented at the SPE Norway One Day Seminar, Bergen, Norway, 14 May. SPE-195617-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/195617-MS.
McCartney, R. A., Burgos, A., and Sørhaug, E. 2010. Changing the Injection Water on the Blane Field, North Sea: A Novel Approach to Predicting the Effect on the Produced Water BaSO4 Scaling Risk. Presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, UK. 26-27 May. https://doi.org/10.2118/130624-MS.
Millero, F. J., Zhang, J.-Z., Lee, K. 1993. Titration alkalinity of seawater. Marine Chemistry 44 (2): 153–165. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0304420393902008.
Millero, F. J., Feistel, R., Wright, D. G. 2008. The composition of Standard Seawater and the definition of the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 55 (1): 50–72. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967063707002282.
Morse, J. W. and He, S. 1993. Influences of T, S and PCO2 on the pseudo-homogeneous precipitation of CaCO3 from seawater: implications for whiting formation. Marine Chemistry 41 (4): 291–297. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030442039390261L.
Randhol, P. and Østvold, T. 2002. Prediction and Kinetics of Carbonate Scaling from Oil Field Waters. Presented at the CORROSION 2002, Denver, Colorado. 7-11 April. https://www.onepetro.org/download/conference-paper/NACE-02317?id=conference-paper%2FNACE-02317.
Roness, G. A., Karunakaran, M., Aksland, T. G., Lundegaard, H. K. T., Holstein, J. R., Mitchell, A. F. and Rønningsen, H. P. 2017. Field Case: Chemical Challenges during the First Three Years of Production at the Gudrun Field – Did we predict the "correct" challenges? Paper presented at the 28th Int. Tekna Oil Field Chemistry Symposium, Geilo, Norway, 26-29 March.
Stewart-Liddon, C., Goodwin, N. J., Graham, G. M., Tjomsland, T., Hustad, B. M., Svela, O. G., Olsen, J. H. and Østgaard, S. 2014. Qualification of chemicals/chemical injection systems for downhole continuous chemical injection. Paper presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 14-15 May. SPE-169782-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169782-MS
Tjomsland, T., Sæten, J. O., Vikane, O., Zettlitzer M. and Chen, P. 2008. Veslefrikk Scale Control Strategy and Economic Implications: Revisited 7 years later - did we improve? Paper presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference, Aberdeen, UK, 28-29 May. SPE-114086. https://doi.org/10.2118/114086-MS.
Vassenden, F., Gustavsen, Ø., Nielsen, F. M., Rian M. and Haldoupis A. J. 2005. Why didn't all the wells at Smørbukk scale in? Paper presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, UK, 11-12 May. SPE-94578-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/94578-MS.
Wat, R., Iversen, A. M. B. and Belsvik, Y. H. 2010. The Diagnosis of Decline and Successful Recovery of PI in A ‘DRY’ HPHT Gas Well That has been Affected by In-situ CaCO3 Scale and Salt Deposition. Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, UK, 26-27 May. SPE-130521-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/130521-MS.
Zhang, Y., Samuelsen, E. H., Frederiksen, R. A. 2010. Calcite Scale Prediction & Management in a Chalk Reservoir - A Field Case. Presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, UK. 26-27 May. SPE-130410-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/130410-MS.