Experimental Investigation on Parameters Affecting the Coefficient of Discharge of a Perforation Hole in Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments
- Joern Loehken (Dynaenergetics) | Davood Yosefnejad (Dynaenergetics) | Bernd Fricke (Dynaenergetics)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 4-6 February, The Woodlands, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2020. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 2.1.3 Completion Equipment, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.2 Installation and Completion Operations, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2 Well completion, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design
- Hydraulic fracturing treatment, Perforation pressure loss, Stimulation, Perforation, Coefficient of Discharge
- 16 in the last 30 days
- 575 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Hydraulic fracturing is the most popular well stimulation technique for extracting hydrocarbons from unconventional oil and natural gas reservoirs. During this process the stimulation fluid is injected into the reservoir from the wellbore with a pressure higher than the breakdown pressure of the reservoir in order to create fractures in the formation.
The pressures needed for hydraulic fracturing depend on many factors such as injection pressure and flow-rate, fluid density, fluid viscosity and the perforation hole. One of the important factors affecting the perforation pressure loss is the Coefficient of Discharge (Cd). This work looks deeper into the factors, which determine the magnitude of this value. Especially for a perforation hole, many of these factors are still not fully understood today and need further research.
As part of this study a new high pressure, high flow test vessel was built, which is compatible with our API19B Section IV test setup, in order to investigate some of the factors that could affect the Cd and subsequently the perforation pressure loss in the fracturing treatment. CFD simulations have been carried out to compare our experimental results with numerical models. In addition, we investigate the effect of the perforation hole size (area) by using different charges, the length of the fluid flow path, the hole geometry (shape), the effect of injecting high viscous fluid and finally the effect of Burr and Cement on the magnitude of the Cd magnitude for the perforated holes.
We developed a simple setup to deduce Cd values from perforations which were created in API19B Section II or Section IV test vessel. The values were measured for different pressure differentials, back-pressures and flow rates. The results show that the above-mentioned parameters directly affect the Cd value and subsequently the near wellbore pressure loss near the perforated hole. The values measured for real perforation holes differ significantly from simple drilled bores. Burrs on the inside and outside of the casing effect the magnitude as well as the length of the flow path.
Our new data sheds new light on the benefit of accurate measurements of Cd values for every shaped charge which helps to efficiently design the hydraulic fracturing stimulation treatment for oil and gas well.
|File Size||23 MB||Number of Pages||30|
Alam, M. M. A., Setoguchi, T., Matsuo, S., and Kim, H. D., "Nozzle Geometry Variations on the Discharge Coefficient," Propulsion and Power Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2016, pp. 22–33. doi: 10.1016/j.jppr.2016.01.002.
Cramer, D. D. 1987. The Application of Limited-Entry Techniques in Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 8–10 March. SPE-16189-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/16189-MS.
Crump, J. B. and Conway, M. W. 1988. Effects of Perforation-Entry Friction on Bottomhole Treating Analysis. J Pet Technol 40 (8): 1041–1048. SPE-15474-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15474-PA.
El-Rabba, A. M., Shah, S. N., and Lord, D. L. 1999. New Perforation Pressure-Loss Correlations for Limited-Entry Fracturing Treatments. SPE Prod & Fac 14 (1): 63–71. SPE-54533-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/54533-PA.
Gallegos, T.J., and Varela, B.A., 2015, Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010—Data analysis and comparison to the literature: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014–5131, 15 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145131.
Huang, S., Ma, T., Wang, D., Lin, Z. (2013). Study on discharge coefficient of perforated orifices as a new kind of flowmeter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.11.022.
Kim, G. H. and Wang, J. Y. 2011. Interpretation of Hydraulic Fracturing Pressure in Low-Permeability Gas Formations. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 27–29 March. SPE-141525-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/141525-MS.
King, G. E. (2012). Hydraulic Fracturing 101: What Every Representative, Environmentalist, Regulator, Reporter, Investor, University Researcher, Neighbor and Engineer Should Know About Estimating Frac Risk and Improving Frac Performance in Unconventional Gas and Oil Wells. SPE-152596-MS. Presented at SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, 6-8 February, The Woodlands, Texas, USA.
Long, G.; Liu, S.; Xu, G.; Wong, S.; Chen, H.; Xiao, B. A Perforation-Erosion Model for Hydraulic-Fracturing Applications. SPE Prod. Oper. 2018, 33, 770–783, doi: 10.2118/174959-PA.
Long, G.; Xu, G. The Effects of Perforation Erosion on Practical Hydraulic-Fracturing Applications. SPE Prod. Oper. 2017, 22, 645–659, doi: 10.2118/185173-PA.
Lord, D. L. (1994, January 1). Study of Perforation Friction Pressure Employing a Large-Scale Fracturing Flow Simulator. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi: 10.2118/28508-MS