Apparent Toughness Anisotropy Induced by Roughness of in Situ Stress: A Mechanism that Hinders Vertical Growth of Hydraulic Fractures and Its Simplified Modeling
- Pengcheng Fu (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Jixiang Huang (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Randolph R. Settgast (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Joseph P. Morris (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Frederick J. Ryerson (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 February, The Woodlands, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Not subject to copyright. This document was prepared by government employees or with government funding that places it in the public domain.
- 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2 Well completion
- In situ stress, Height containment, Rock toughness
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 659 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
A hydraulic fracture's height growth is known to be affected by many factors that are related to the layered structure of sedimentary rocks. While these factors are often used to qualitatively explain why hydraulic fractures usually have well-bounded height growth, most of them cannot be directly and quantitatively characterized for a given reservoir to enable a priori prediction of fracture height growth. In this work, we study the role of the "roughness" of in situ stress profiles, namely alternating low- and high-stress among rock layers, in determining the tendency of a hydraulic fracture to propagate horizontally versus vertically. We found that a hydraulic fracture propagates horizontally in low-stress layers ahead of neighboring high-stress layers. Under such a configuration, a fracture mechanics principle dictates that the net pressure required for horizontal growth of high-stress layers within the current fracture height is significantly lower than that required for additional vertical growth across rock layers. Without explicit consideration of the rough stress profile, the system behaves as if the rock is tougher against vertical propagation than it is against horizontal fracture propagation. We developed a simple relationship between the apparent differential rock toughness and characteristics of the stress roughness that induce equivalent overall fracture shapes. This relationship enables existing hydraulic fracture models to represent the effects of rough in situ stress on fracture growth without directly representing the fine-resolution rough stress profiles.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Abbas, S.E., Gordeliy, A.P., Lecampion, B.. 2014. Limited height growth and reduced opening of hydraulic fractures due to fracture offsets: an XFEM application. SPE hydraulic fracturing technology conference, 4-6 Feb, the Woodlands, TX. SPE-168622-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168622-MS.
Adachi, J.I., Detournay, E., and Peirce, A.P. 2010 Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth across stress barriers. Int J Rock Mech Min 47(4):625-639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2010.03.008
Burghardt, J., Desroches, J., Lecampion, B.. 2015. Laboratory Study of the Effect of Well Orientation, Completion Design, and Rock Fabric on Near-Wellbore Hydraulic Fracture geometry in Shales. Presented at the 13th ISRM International Congress of Rock Mechanics, Montreal, Canada. ISRM-13CONGRESS-2015-357.
Cherian, B.V., Higgins-Borchardt, S., Bordakov, G.A.. 2014. The Impact of Laminated Rock on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Unconventional Resources. Presented at the SPE Energy Resources Conference, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 9-11 June. SPE-169960-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169960-MS.
Chuprakov, D.A. and Prioul, R. 2015. Hydraulic fracture height containment by weak horizontal interfaces. In: SPE hydraulic fracturing technology conference, 3-5 Feb, the Woodlands. SPE-173337-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173337-MS.
Cooke, M.L. and Underwood, C.A. 2001. Fracture termination and step-over at bedding interfaces due to frictional slip and interface opening. J Struct Geol 23 (2): 223-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(00)00092-4.
Daneshy, A.A. 1978. Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Layered Formations. SPE J 18(1). https://doi.org/10.2118/6088-PA.
Diaz, H., Gamero, J., Desroches, R.. 2018. Rock Fabric Analysis Based on Borehole Image Logs: Applications to Modeling Fracture Height Growth. In SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition. 16-18 October, Muscat, Oman. SPE-191389-18IHFT-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/191389-18IHFT-MS.
Fisher, M.K. and Warpinski, N.R. 2012. Hydraulic fracture-height growth: real data. SPE Prod Oper 27(1). https://doi.org/10.2118/145949-PA.
Fu, P., Johnson, S.M., and Carrigan, C.R. 2013. An explicitly coupled hydro-geomechanical model for simulating hydraulic fracturing in complex discrete fracture networks." International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 34(14): 2278-2300 https://doi.org/10.1002/nag.2135.
Fung, R.L., Vijayakumar, S., and Cormack, D. 1987. Calculation of vertical fracture containment in layered formations. SPE Formation Eval 2(4):518-522. https://doi.org/10.2118/14707-PA.
Gu, H. and Siebrits, E. 2008. Effect of formation modulus contrast on hydraulic fracture height containment. SPE Prod Oper 23(2). https://doi.org/10.2118/103822-PA.
Kruger, R. 2004. Virtual crack closure technique: history, approach, and applications. Appl Mech Rev 57(2):109-143. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1595677.
Lam, K.Y. and Cleary, M.P. 1984. Slippage and reinitiation of (hydraulic) fractures at frictional interfaces. Int J Numer Anal Met 8(6):589-604. https://doi.org/10.1002/nag.1610080607.
Li, H., Zou, Y., Valko, P.P.. 2016. Hydraulic fracture height predictions in laminated shale formations using finite element discrete element method. In: SPE hydraulic fracturing technology conference, 9-11 Feb, The Woodlands. https://doi.org/10.2118/179129-MS.
McClure, M.W. and Kang, C.A. 2017. A Three-Dimensional Reservoir, Wellbore, and Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator that is Compositional and Thermal, Tracks Proppant and Water Solute Transport, Includes Non-Darcy and Non-Newtonian Flow, and Handles Fracture Closure. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Conference, 20-22 February, Montgomery, Texas, USA. SPE-182593-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/182593-MS.
Settgast, R.R., Fu, P., Walsh, S.D.C.. 2017 A fully coupled method for massively parallel simulation of hydraulically driven fractures in 3-dimensions. Int J Numer Anal Method Geomech 41(5):627-653. https://doi.org/10.1002/nag.2557.
Simonson, E.R., Abou-Sayed, A.S. and Clifton, R.J. 1978. Containment of massive hydraulic fractures. SPE J 18(1):27-32. https://doi.org/10.2118/6089-PA.
Smith, M.B., Bale, A.B., Britt, L.K.. 2001. Layered modulus effects on fracture propagation, proppant placement, and fracture modeling. In: SPE annual technical conference and exhibition, 30 Sep-3 Oct, New Orleans. https://doi.org/10.2118/71654-MS.
Teufel, L.W. and Clark, J.A. 1984 Hydraulic fracture propagation in layered rock: experimental studies of fracture containment. SPE J 24(1). https://doi.org/10.2118/9878-PA.
Van Eekelen, H.A.M. 1982. Hydraulic fracture geometry: fracture containment in layered formations. SPE J 22(3). https://doi.org/10.2118/9261-PA.
Voegele, M.D., Abou-Sayed, A.S. and Jones, A.H. 1983. Optimization of stimulation design through the use of in situ stress determination. J Pet Technol 35(6):1071-1081. https://doi.org/10.2118/10308-PA
Warpinski, N.R., Schmidt, R.A. and Northrop, D.A. 1982a. In situ stresses: the predominant influence on hydraulic fracture containment. J Pet Technol 34(3):653-664. https://doi.org/10.2118/8932-PA
Warpinski, N.R., Clark, J.A., Schmidt, R.A.. 1982b. Laboratory investigation on the effect of in situ stresses on hydraulic fracture containment. SPE J 22(3). https://doi.org/10.2118/9834-PA.
Warpinski, N.R., Branagan, P.T., Peterson, R.E.. 1998. An interpretation of m-site hydraulic fracture diagnostic results. In: SPE rocky mountain regional/low-permeability reservoirs symposium, 5-8 April, Denver. https://doi.org/10.2118/39950-MS.
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C.. 2011. Modeling of Hydraulic-Fracture-Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation. SPE Prod Oper 26(4). https://doi.org/10.2118/140253-PA.
Zhang, X. and Jeffrey R.G. 2008. Reinitiation and Termination of Fluid-driven Fractures at Frictional Bedding Interfaces. J of Geophys Res 113, B08416. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JB005327.
Zhang, X., Wu, B., Jeffrey, R.G.. 2017. A pseudo-3d model for hydraulic fracture growth in a layered rock. Int J Solids Struct 115-116:208-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2017.03.022