Building a Fundamental Understanding of Scale Inhibitor Retention in Carbonate Formations
- Khosro Jarrahian (Heriot-Watt University) | Kenneth Sorbie (Heriot-Watt University) | Michael Singleton (Heriot-Watt University) | Lorraine Boak (Heriot-Watt University) | Alexander Graham (Heriot-Watt University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE International Conference on Oilfield Chemistry, 8-9 April, Galveston, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.8 Unconventional and Complex Reservoirs, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design
- Flow Assurance, Carbonate Formations, Scale Inhibitor Retention, Squeeze Treatment
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Scale inhibitor (SI) squeeze treatments in carbonate reservoirs are often affected by the chemical reactivity between the SI and the carbonate mineral substrate. This chemical interaction may lead to a controlled precipitation of the SI through the formation of a sparingly soluble Ca/SI complex which can lead to an extended squeeze lifetime. However, the same interaction may in some cases lead to uncontrolled SI precipitation causing near-well formation damage in the treated zone. This paper presents a detailed study of the various retention mechanisms of SI in carbonate formations, considering system variables such as the (carbonate) formation mineralogy, the type of SI and the system conditions. Apparent adsorption experiments, described previously (Kahrwad et al. 2008), are used to show when the SI/substrate interaction is pure adsorption or coupled adsorption /precipitation. Experiments were performed for different SIs at various operational conditions, i.e. initial pH values, minerologies - calcite, limestone and dolomite - and temperatures; the overall results from these coupled experiments are summarised in Table 3. The SI species used in this study included 1 phosphonate (DETPMP), 1 phosphate ester (PAPE) and 3 polymeric scale inhibitors (PPCA, PFC, VS-Co); the full names of these SIs are given in the paper. All precipitates were studied using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray (ESEM/EDX) and Particle Size Analysis (PSA). These measurements confirmed that when precipitation occurred, it was mainly in the bulk solution and not on the rock surface.
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