Unorthodox Fluids for Unconventional Completions: Maximizing Production and Avoiding Pitfalls
- Paul Carman (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Chunlou Li (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Richard Wheeler (Baker Hughes, a GE Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 24-26 September, Dallas, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 2 Well completion, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design
- fluid design, Guar replacement, friction reducer, Unconventional, frac design
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 244 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
The burgeoning development of shale and unconventional formations in the face of a limited supply of guar, the primary gellant for fracturing fluids, created a demand for an alternative fluid. The new fluid, a modified friction reducer, capable of generating high viscosity with increased loadings and containing unique chemistry to facilitate breaking of the fluid provides a cost effective way of proppant transport. Since 2011, it has been used together with different types of proppant to treat various formations in the United States, both conventional and unconventional. Even with a wide technological acceptance, this fluid is not a solution for all situations. This study presents the application results, positive and negative, which are equally important for the continuous improvement of fracturing stimulation.
Mining an in-house treatment database, this study collects treatment designs and operation parameters for all fracturing jobs performed in the following five major unconventional plays: Bakken/Threeforks, Eagle Ford, Marcellus, Utica and Wolfcamp. By using the publicly available FracFocus database, offset wells nearby the wells of interest were identified and their basic treatment information was collected, analyzed and normalized based on geography. Production performance metrics such as peak production and cumulative production in near and long term were used to evaluate the production performance of wells included.
This study shows that this technology has been successfully deployed in temperatures up to 300°F. Many wells treated in the Bakken have measured depths (MD) over 20,000 ft and true vertical depths (TVD) over 11,000 ft. Proppant with various mesh sizes from 100 to 20/40 are carried by this type of fracturing fluid. Due to the complex nature of unconventional formations and a long list of designing and operating parameters, it demonstrates outstanding performance in certain cases and may show why it has unfavorable results in others.
In comparison to other studies, this evaluation incorporates the near and long term results. The detailed analysis of this fracturing fluid technology and how its production performance sheds light on some questions that completion engineers are longing to answer: In which formation does this fluid have the best results and what types of formations should be avoided? What can be modified in job design to improve its performance?
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||17|
King, G. E. (2010, January 1). Thirty Years of Gas Shale Fracturing: What Have We Learned? Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/133456-MS
Burton, W. A. (2013, September 30). Unconventional Completions: Which One is Right for Your Application? Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/166431-MS
Scanlan, W. P., Pierskalla, K. J., Sobernheim, D. W., Christian, J., Dutta, R., Sharma, A., … Boykin, B. (2018, January 23). Optimization of Bakken Well Completions in a Multivariate World. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/189868-MS
Pechiney, J. J., Ajayi, T., Cannon, T., & Cardwell, R. (2013, August 20). Utilizing Diagnostics to Evaluate Completion Effectiveness in the Marcellus Shale. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/165717-MS
Richter, K. (2017, July 24). Midland Basin Wolfcamp Shale: Completions Observations and Lateral Length Optimization. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. doi:10.15530/URTEC-2017-2665631
Zhong, M., Schuetter, J., Mishra, S., & Lafollette, R. F. (2015, February 3). Do Data Mining Methods Matter?: A Wolfcamp Shale Case Study. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/173334-MS
Sun, H., DeBenedictis, F., Zhou, J., Cutler, J., Royce, T., Nelson, S., & Qu, Q. (2013, June 5). Field Case Histories of a Non-Damaging Guar Alternative for Linear Gel Application in Slickwater Fracturing. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/165130-MS