Temperature Logging Guidelines and Factors that Affect Measurement Accuracy
- Gede Adnyana (Retired Chevron) | Jyotsna Sharma (Chevron) | Don Mims (Chevron) | David Barnes (Chevron) | Ron Behrens (Chevron)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 24-26 September, Dallas, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3.3 Well & Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 6.3 Safety
- temperature survey, steamflood heavy oil, quality check, temperature sensor, cased hole logging
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 205 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
A robust reservoir surveillance program is the key to successfully managing a steamflood operation. Observation wells allow us to directly monitor changing reservoir conditions throughout the life of the steamflood using time lapse surveys. Temperature surveys are a primary data type collected from the observation wells to evaluate the reservoir heating, and to monitor the steamchest. Thus, accurate measurement and proper interpretation of temperature surveys is essential for steamflood management.
The objective of this study was to look at factors that can impact a temperature log and steps that can be taken to improve temperature measurement accuracy. Several field examples are presented to illustrate the effects of logging speed, steamchest temperature, sensor type and wellbore fluid on recorded temperature data. Guidance on evaluating and interpreting different temperature signatures such as, interpretation of liquid level in an observation well, understanding temperature signatures in air, wellbore reflux phenomenon, and examples of logs from malfunctioning logging tools, are also provided. The main purpose of this work is to aid both the operators and the service companies to gather accurate temperature data for improved steamflood management. This study is based on an extensive study of field data, primarily gathered from a single company's steamflood operations in California (using over 1000 temperature observation wells). Additionally, an analytical model was developed based on reservoir heat transfer and the sensor response mechanism to understand the impact of steam chest temperature, logging speed and sensor response time on the accuracy of the temperature log data. Results from the analytical model support the field observations.
Field data and analytical assessment show that several factors can impact the accuracy of a temperature log, which can subsequently affect our interpretation and operational decisions. Data suggests that higher logging speeds introduce greater error in measured temperature data and these errors are greater at elevated steamchest temperatures. Temperature tools with longer sensor response times need to be run at slower logging speed to get accurate measurements. Ensuring adequate level of thermally equilibrated liquid (typically water) in the observation well is essential both, for gathering accurate data and to mitigate possible safety concerns for the logging operator. The examples and guidelines provided in this study will aid the practitioners to improve the gathering and interpretation of temperature log data.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||18|
Carslaw, J. C.,Jaegar, H. S. 1959. Conduction of Heat in Solids, Second Edition, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. http://www.worldcat.org/title/conduction-of-heat-in-solids/oclc/535528
Griston, S. 1989. Fluid Effects in Temperature Observation Wells. Presented at 64th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers held in San Antonio. TX. October 8-11. SPE-19740-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/19740-MS
Hong, K. C. 1993. Steamflood Reservoir Management: Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery. Pennwell Books. January. http://www.worldcat.org/title/steamflood-reservoir-management-thermal-enhanced-oil-recovery/oclc/28507721
Irish, J. 2005. Ocean Instrumentation, Course 13.998, Lecture on Instrumentation Specifications. Presented at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 10 February. http://uop.whoi.edu/index.html.
Nanmac Website. 2017. Temperature Sensors and Response Times. Comparison of Temperature Transducers. Thermocouple. RTD. Thermistor. http://www.nanmac.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/53/2017/11/sensor-response.pdf
Vogel, J. V., 1984 July 1. JPT. Simplified Heat Calculations for Steamfloods. presented at the 1982 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans Sept. 26-29. SPE-11219-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/11219-PA
Widmyer, R. H. 1987 August 1. JPT. Use of Monitor/Observation Wells in Monitoring and Evaluation of Oil Recovery Projects. First presented at the 1986 SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium held in Tulsa, April 20-23. SPE-14956-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/14956-PA
Widmyer, R. H.,Howard, C. E. 1976. The Charco Redondo Steam Flood Pilot - Reservoir Monitoring Operations. Presented at the Improved Oil Recovery Symposium of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, March 22-24. SPE-5824-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/5824-MS
Wood, S. G., & Dunham, D. J. 1986. Steamflood Surveillance Using Temperature Observation Wells. Presented at the 56th California Regional Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers held in Oakland, CA, April 2-4. SPE-15051-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/15051-MS