Geological Heterogeneity in Geological Models - A Review of the Impact of Available Data, Modeling Parameters, and Modeling Workflow on Primary Recovery, Waterflooding, and Steamflooding Projects
- W. Scott Meddaugh (Midwestern State University) | Andrew J. Meddaugh (Consultant)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 24-26 September, Dallas, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.5.3 Scaling Methods, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery
- Reservoir heterogeneity, Uncertainty, Forecasting, Geostatistics, Reservoir modeling
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- 175 since 2007
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Reservoir modeling and the derived fluid production over time curves are a key part of the workflows associated with major capital project decisions. These models may be very complex and use a variety of geological constraints in an effort to develop the porosity, permeability, and saturation distributions used in dynamic models (with or without upscaling). Over time and partially in response to increased computing capability as well as the need for more realistically heterogeneous models, model size as measured by number of model cells and model complexity has increased but model-derived production forecasts remain optimistic. This paper, one of a series that now stretches back over a decade, addresses a number of modeling issues with the goal of (1) better understanding how modeling workflows may contribute to forecast optimism and (2) what reservoir modelers, both geologists and engineers, may do to reduce forecast optimism derived from their subsurface models by improved understanding of how model parameters such as grid size, number of grid cells, semivariogram parameters (e.g. the range), and number of geological/stratigraphic "control" surfaces used to constrain models. Adequate modeling of reservoir heterogeneity appears to require very to extremely large models (e.g. large number of small cells). Many of the parameters used to "control" heterogeneity including the semivariogram range parameter, the number of "detailed" stratigraphic layers, and the number of rock/facies "containers" or model regions appears to have only a small impact on forecast recovery.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Meddaugh, W. Scott, 2005. Evaluation of Stochastic Earth Model Workflows, Vertical Upscaling and Areal Upscaling Using Data from the Eunice Monument South Unit (New Mexico_ and the LL-652 Central Fault Block (Venezuela) Reservoirs, in Geostatistics Banff 2004, Leuangthong and Deutsch (eds), Springer 2005.
Meddaugh, W. Scott, W. Terry Osterloh, Niall Toomey, Steve Bachtel, Nicole Champenoy, Dana Rowan, Gregio Gonzalez, Shamsul Aziz, S. F. Hoadley, J. Brown, F. M. Al-Dhafeeri, and A. R. Deemer, 2011. Impact of reservoir heterogeneity on Steamflooding, Wafra First Eocene Reservoir, partitioned Zone (PZ), Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, SPE 150606, SPE HOCE, Kuwait City, Kuwait.
Meddaugh, W. Scott, Osterloh, W. Terry, Ipsita Gupta, Nicole Champenoy, Dana Rowan, Niall Toomey, Shamsul Aziz, Steve Hoadley, Joel Brown, Falal Al-Yami, 2012. The Wafra First Eocene Carbonate Reservoir Steamflood Pilots: Geology, Heterogeneity, Steam/Rock Interaction, and Reservoir Response, SPE 158324, San Antonio, Texas.