Shaped Charge Perforation Depth at Full Downhole Conditions: New Understandings
- Brenden Grove (Halliburton Jet Research Center) | Doug Manning (Halliburton Jet Research Center)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 24-26 September, Dallas, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2 Well completion, 7.6.4 Data Mining, 7 Management and Information, 2.2.2 Perforating, 2.1.3 Completion Equipment, 2.2 Installation and Completion Operations, 7.6 Information Management and Systems
- infow, perforating, penetration, skin, depth
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 347 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Explosive perforating has been the dominant method of establishing communication between the reservoir and cased wellbore for more than 70 years. Effective perforations, which provide an unimpeded flowpath, are critical to deliver the well performance required to justify overall project investment. To reliably estimate or predict well flow performance, it is essential to have an accurate understanding of critical perforation parameters that exist downhole, including tunnel penetration depth into the formation, cleanness of the tunnels, and hole diameter through the casing.
Consequently, the industry has focused significant attention toward developing this understanding in recent decades. This is particularly true today, as downhole environments are becoming more extreme. Project investment decisions require increasingly accurate well performance estimates, both initially and over the life of a development.
This current state of affairs has motivated a recent and ongoing effort to better understand perforator performance at full downhole conditions, up to and exceeding 30,000 psi. A large program is underway to investigate the penetration and hole size performance of several charges across a range of rocks and pressure conditions. The goal of this program is to obtain fundamental insights into the effects of extreme values of certain downhole conditions on perforator performance. The current test program follows the recently revised API-RP 19B Section II protocol and includes high-pressure variations of the standard test configuration.
One area of key findings thus far is in the context of recent industry frameworks for analyzing laboratory penetration data, including ballistic stress and the ballistic indicator function. These are found to be useful tools that simplify analysis and provide insight and guidance. These frameworks make it possible to collapse multiple diverse penetration datasets, from across a range of test conditions, toward a single performance curve. This curve can be used to enable ballpark estimates of the performance of a given charge in a specific rock strength and stress regime. It provides the potential to identify a penetration asymptote (assumed to be a fundamental charge property that would be observed in very strong and/or highly-stressed rocks). It is also a useful framework to quickly visualize a vast spectrum of reservoir conditions, and to identify where a specific reservoir may fit in the broader context. Of particular interest to the perforating testing community is the relatively narrow range of values encompassed by the newly-revised API-RP 19B Section II standard test conditions.
To extend this framework to predictive models of charge penetration over a broad range of downhole conditions, however, study results indicate that more work is needed. It will be necessary, for example, to account for charge-dependent wellbore effects to move closer to a predictive capability that exhibits the level of quantitative accuracy required for many applications.
Other fundamental findings involve wellbore pressure influence on perforator performance. For one charge studied somewhat extensively, wellbore pressure was observed to exhibit an interesting non-monotonic influence on penetration. Moderate wellbore pressures increased penetration depth; higher wellbore pressures decreased penetration depth. Wellbore fluid pressure was also found to exhibit a charge-dependent influence on casing hole size performance; increasing wellbore pressure tended to reduce the hole size slightly for one charge tested, but had no effect for two other charges tested.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Ayre, D., Atwood, D., Geerts, S., . 2017. API RP 19B Section 2 Perforation Tests Conducted at Multiple Facilities to Guide the Latest Section 2 Revision. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9-11 October. SPE-187408-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/187408-MS.
Grove, B., Heiland, J., Walton, I., . 2009. New Effective Stress Law for Predicting Perforation Depth at Downhole Conditions. SPE Drill & Compl 24 (4): 678–685. SPE-111778-PA.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111778-PA.
Haggerty, D., Craddock, G., and McGregor, J. 2016a. Effects of High Pore Pressure on Perforation Tunnels in Both High and Moderate Compressive Strength Rocks. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 24-26 February. SPE-178944-MS.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/178944-MS.
Haggerty, D., Craddock, G., and McGregor, J. 2016b. Effects of High Pore Pressure on Perforation Tunnels in Both High and Moderate Compressive Strength Rocks. Presented at the International Perforating Symposium, Galveston, Texas, USA, 9-11 May. Presentation IPS-16-43.https://www.perforators.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/IPS-16-43.pdf.
Hardesty, J. 2012. A Consideration of Realistic Perforation Geometry and Well Performance Modeling. Presented at the International Perforating Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 25-27 April. Presentation IPS-12-30. http://www.perforators.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/IPS-12-30-A-Consideration-of-Realistic-Perforation-Geometry-and-Well-Performance-Modelling.-pdf.pdf.
Harris, M.H. 1966. The Effect of Perforating on Well Productivity, JPT 18(04): 518–28. SPE-1236-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1236-PA.
Harvey, J., Grove, B., Zhan, L., . 2010. New Predictive Model of Penetration Depth for Oilwell-Perforating Shaped Charges. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA,10-12 February. SPE-127920-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/127920-MS.
Harvey, J., Grove, B., and Zhan, L., 2012. Stressed Rock Penetration Depth Correlation. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 15-17 February. SPE-151846-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151846-MS.
Hong, K.C. 1975. Productivity of Perforated Completions in Formations With or Without Damage, JPT 27(08): 1027–38. SPE-4653-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4653-PA.
Karakas, M. and Tariq, S.M. 1991. Semi-Analytical Productivity Models for Perforated Completions, SPE Prod Eng 6(01): 73–82. SPE-18247-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/18247-PA.
Klotz, J.A., Kreuger, R.F., and Pye, D.S. 1974. Effect of Perforation Damage on Well Productivity, JPT 26(11): 1033–44. SPE-4654-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4654-PA.
Locke, S. 1981. An Advanced Method for Predicting the Productivity Ratio of a Perforated Well, JPT 33(12): 2481–88. SPE-8804-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/8804-PA.
McLeod, O.H., Jr 1983. The Effect of Perforation Conditions on Well Performance, JPT 26(11): 31–39. SPE-4654-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4654-PA.
McNelis, L., Loehken, J., and Eitschberger, C. 2014a. Stressed Rock Penetration Modelling and Section II Testing for Shaped Charges. Presented at the Chinese International Perforating Symposium, China, 15-17 October. Presentation CIPS-14-009. http://www.perforators.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/CIPS-14-009-Perforating-Modelling-on-Stressed-Rock-English-version-only.pdf.
McNelis, L., Loehken, J., and Eitschberger, C. 2014b. Stressed Rock Penetration Modelling and Section II/IV Testing for Shaped Charges. Presented at the International Perforating Symposium, Galveston, Texas, USA. 12-14 May. Presentation IPS-14-13. http://www.perforators.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/IPS-14-13-Stressed-Rock-Penetration-Modelling-and-Section-II-Testing-for-Shaped-Charges_L-McNelis.pdf.
McNelis, L., Loehken, J., and Fricke, B. 2016. Influence of Shaped Charge Design on Target Penetration; Ballistic Performance Modelling in Rock. Presented at the Middle East and North Africa Perforating Symposium, Muscat, Oman, 13-14 November. Presentation MENAPS-2016-5. http://perforators.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/MENAPS_2016_05-Influence-of-Shaped-Charge-Design-on-Target-Penetration.pdf.
Mustafa, H., Briner, A., Jumaat, M., . 2012. Ultrastrong Formations: Perforating Challenges, Limits, and Optimization. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8-10 October. SPE-159771-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159771-MS.