Low Salinity Water Injection in a Clastic Reservoir in Northeast Brazil: An Experimental Case Study
- Alana Almeida (Universidade Federal da Bahia, University of Alberta) | Rajan Patel (University of Alberta) | Carolina Arambula (University of Alberta) | Japan Trivedi (University of Alberta) | João Soares (University of Alberta) | Gloria Costa (Universidade Federal da Bahia) | Marcelo Embiruçu (Universidade Federal da Bahia)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Trinidad and Tobago Section Energy Resources Conference, 25-26 June, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics
- oil recovery, ionic exchange, pH increase, low salinity water injection (LSWI)
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 148 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Several researchers have demonstrated in laboratory experiments and field applications that reducing the concentration of salts and the content of multivalent cations in the injection water may increase oil recovery. This study evaluates the performance of low salinity water injection (LSWI) in oil recovery using a crude oil and synthetic formation water of a sandstone reservoir in northeast Brazil. Two Botucatu sandstone core samples of 6 in of length and 2 in of diameter were used for the coreflooding experiments. The fluids used included a light crude oil sample, and synthetic formation water (SFW) produced from the four main salts of the original formation water (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2). In Core 1, two injections were carried out at an average reservoir temperature of 60 °C, one using SFW with 200,000 mg/l as secondary recovery mode, and one using SFW diluted 40 times (40xd_SFW) resulting in a low salinity water of 5,000 mg/l as tertiary recovery mode. In Core 2, 40xd_SFW was injected at the same temperature to compare the high and low salinity water effects in the secondary mode. Moreover, zeta (ζ) potential measurements on Botucatu sandstone powder were performed in 6 dilutions of the SFW and deionized water. The experimental results demonstrated an increase in oil recovery and pH when 40xd_SFW was injected in secondary and tertiary modes. The effluent ionic concentration from Core 1 showed the reduction of Ca2+ during HSWI, indicating its adsorption on the rock surface. Most remarkably, Ca2+ concentration increases and the Na+ concentration decreases in the effluent samples in the first LSWI pore volume injected, which suggested ionic exchange of calcium for sodium on the rock surface. Furthermore, Fe2+/Fe3+ and traces of Al3+ were observed in the effluent demonstrating the occurrence of fine migration in SFW and 40xd_SFW. The magnitude of negative ζ potential on Botucatu sandstone increases as the salinity of the brine solutions decreases. Based on that experimental study, it is noticed that a set of LSWI mechanisms occurr simultaneously in Botucatu sandstone, and oil and brine samples from Recôncavo Basin, indicating a potential of application for LSWI in similar Brazilian oil reservoirs.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||18|
Aksulu, H., Håmso, D., Strand, S., Puntervold, T., and Austad, T. 2012. Evaluation of Low-Salinity Enhanced Oil Recovery Effects in Sandstone: Effects of the Temperature and pH Gradient. Energy Fuels 26 (6): 3497–3503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef300162n.
Alotaibi, M. B.,Nasralla, R. A., and Nars-El-Din, H. A. 2011. Wettability Studies Using Low-Salinity Water in Sandstone Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (6): 713–725. SPE-149942-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149942-PA.
Al-Shalabi, E. W. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2016. A Comprehensive Review of Low Salinity/Engineered Water Injections and their Applications in Sandstone and Carbonate Rocks. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 139: 137–161. http://doi:10.1016/j.petrol.2015.11.027.
Austad, T., RezaeiDoust, A., and Puntervold, T. 2010. Chemical Mechanism of Low Salinity Water Flooding in Sandstone Reservoirs. Presented at the Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24-28 April. SPE-129767-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129767-MS.
Bona, J., Dani, N., Ketzer, J.M., and De Ros, L.F. 2008. Dickite in shallow oil reservoirs from Reconcavo Basin Brazil: diagenetic implications for basin evolution. Clay Minerals 43: 213–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/pec.92.47.0197.
Cardoso, O. R., and Balaban, R. C. 2015. Comparative study between Botucatu and Berea sandstone properties. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 62: 58–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2015.04.004.
Ding, Hongna, and Rahman, Sheik. 2017. Experimental and theoretical study of wettability alteration during low salinity water flooding - an state of the art review. Colloids and Surface A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 520: 622–639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2017.02.006.
Lee, S. Y.,Webb, K. J.,Collins, I., Lager, A., Clarke, S., Sullivan, M., Roth, A., and Wang, X. 2010. Low Salinity Oil Recovery: Increasing Understanding of the Underlying Mechanisms. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24-28 April. SPE-129722-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129722-MS.
Milani, E. J.,Faccini, U. F.,Scherer, C. M.,Araújo, L.M., and Cupertino, J. A. 1998. Sequences and stratigraphic hierarchy of the Paraná basin, (Ordovician to Cretaceous), southern Brazil. Boletim IG-USP 29: 125–173.http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/issn.2316-8986.v29i0p125-173.
Moraes, M. A. S., and de Ros, L.F. 1992. Depositional, infiltrated and authigenic clays in fluvial sandstones of the Jurassic Sergi Formation, Recôncavo Basin, Northeastern Brazil. SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology 47. https://doi.org/10.2110/pec.92.47.0197.
Nasralla, R. A and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2011. Impact of Electrical Surface Charges and Cation Exchange on Oil Recovery by Low Salinity Water. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 20-22 September. SPE-147937-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147937-MS.
Nasralla, R. A. and Nars-El-Din, H. A. 2014. Impact of cation type and concentration in injected brine on oil recovery in sandstone reservoirs. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 122: 384–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.10.012.
Nasralla, R. A.,Batawell, M. A., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2013. Investigation of Wettability Alteration and Oil-Recovery Improvement by Low Salinity Water in Sandstone Rock. J Can Pet Technol 52 (02). SPE-146322-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146322-PA.
Pu, H., Xie, X., Yin, P., and Morrow, N. R. 2010. Low-Salinity Waterflooding and Mineral Dissolution. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. SPE-134042-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134042-MS.
RezaeiDoust, A., Puntervold, T. and Austad, T. 2011. Chemical Verification of the EOR Mechanism by Using Low Saline/Smart Water in Sandstone. Energy Fuels 25 (5): 2151–2162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef200215y.
Robbana, E., Buikema, T. A.,Mair, C., Williams, D., Mercer, D., Webb, K. J.,Hewson, A., and Reddick, C. E. 2012. Low Salinity Enhanced Oil Recovery - Laboratory to Day One Field Implementation - LoSal EOR into the Clair Ridge Project. Presented at the SPE Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 11-14 November. SPE-161750-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/161750-MS.
Seccombe, J. C.,Lager, A., Webb, K. J.,Jerauld, G., and Fueg, E. 2008. Improving Waterflood Recovery: LoSal™ EOR Field Evaluation. Presented at SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20-23 April. SPE-113480-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113480-MS.
Shehata, A. M. and Nars-El-Din, H.A. 2015. Zeta Potential Measurements: impact of the salinity on sandstone minerals. Presented at SPE Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, 13-15 April. SPE-173763-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173763-MS.
Shehata, A. M. and Nars-El-Din, H.A. 2016. The Role of Sandstone Mineralogy and Rock Quality in the Performance of Low-Salinity Waterflooding. SPE Res Eval & Eng Preprint. SPE-181754-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/181754-PA.
Sheng, J. J. 2014. Critical Review of Low Salinity Waterflooding. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 120: 216–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.05.026.
Tang, G. and Morrow, N. R. 1997. Salinity, Temperature, Oil Composition, and Oil Recovery by Waterflooding. SPE Res Eng 12 (4): 269–276. SPE-36680-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36680-PA.
Tang, G. and Morrow, N. R. 1999. Influence of Brine Composition and Fines Migration on Crude Oil/Brine/Rock Interactions and Oil Recovery. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 24 (2-4): 99–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(99)00034-0.
Zhang, Y. and Morrow, N. 2006. Comparison of Secondary and Tertiary Recovery with Change in Injection Brine Composition for Crude-Oil/Sandstone Combinations. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22-26 April. SPE-99757-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99757-MS.
Zhang, L., Zhang, J., Wang, Y., Yang, R., Zhang, Y., Gu, J., Zhang, M., and Ren, S. 2018. Experimental Investigation of Low-Salinity Water Flooding in a Low-Permeability Oil Reservoir. Energy Fuels 32 (3): 3108–3118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b03704.