Acid Jetting on Carbonate Rocks: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study at Laboratory Scale
- Vanessa Ndonhong (Texas A&M University) | Ding Zhu (Texas A&M University) | Alfred Daniel Hill (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Europec featured at 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, 11-14 June, Copenhagen, Denmark
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2 Well completion, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.8 Unconventional and Complex Reservoirs, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 2.6 Acidizing, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.5.3 Scaling Methods, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 4.3.4 Scale
- Well stimulation, Acidizing, Turbulent flow, Computational fluid dynamics, Acid jetting
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 116 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Acid jetting is a well stimulation method for carbonate reservoirs, with observed positive production enhancement in some extended-reach horizontal wells. It is a process in which a reactive chemical solution is injected at a high rate at specific entry points via relatively smaller nozzles. The flow out of the nozzles is designed to be a fully turbulent jet which impinges on the porous surface of the rock, leading to a dissolution structure. That dissolution structure is of great interest as it determines the quality of the well stimulation job, which correlates directly to the well productivity. This work is the second step in the overall project about a comprehensive study of acid jetting as a successful stimulation method for carbonate formations. The first step was an experimental study performed using a linear core-flood setup including a jetting nozzle. The objective was to understand the mechanism of acid jetting on carbonate cores and identify the important parameters in the experimental outcome. The current study aims at describing acid jetting from a mathematical standpoint, while using experimental results as model validation and improvement tools. Previously published acid jetting laboratory experiments results revealed the recurring creation of a large dissolution structure at the impingement location in the shape of a cavity and, depending on injection conditions, the propagation of wormholes through the core.
A core-scale computational fluid dynamics model has been developed to simulate cavity and wormhole growth in acid jetting. It is a three-dimensional model which alternates between the two fundamental aspects of the overall acid jetting process. Firstly, it models the fluid mechanics of the turbulent jet exiting the nozzle and continuously impinging on the porous media transient surface. The jet fluid dynamics are implemented using a 3D transient finite volume numerical solver using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the Smagorinsky-Lilly sub-grid model to solve the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The results of this simulation include a velocity and pressure distribution at the porous media surface. Secondly, it models an irreversible chemical reaction with dissolution and transport at the impingement location between the fluid and the rock matrix. The reactive transport is modeled using the conventional kinetics of the dissolution of calcite by hydrochloric acid. This two-step model successfully replicates experimental results and observations for the cavity growth. It can then be coupled with a wormhole growth model to represent the entire experimental acid jetting outcome.
The modeling and computational tool for acid jetting developed in this paper will build the understanding for the upscaling and integrated dynamic modeling of an acid jetting stimulation job in the field. It will thus lead to the establishment of a standard for predicting and improving field applications of acid jetting.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||22|
Ashkanani, F., Sharma Shankar, S., Moudi Fahad, A.. 2012. First Successful Rigless Acid Tunneling Job in Mauddud Carbonate Reservoir in Raudhatain Field, North Kuwait. Paper SPE-151564-MS presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, 15-17 February, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA. https://doi.org/10.2118/151564-MS
Hansen, J.H., and Neverdeen, N. 2002. Controlled Acid Jet (CAJ) Technique for Effective Single Operation Stimulation of 14,000+ ft Long Reservoir Sections. Paper SPE-78318-MS presented at the European Petroleum Conference, 29-31 October, Aberdeen, United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.2118/78318-MS
Icardi, M., Gavi, E., Marchisio, . 2011. Validation of LES Predictions for Turbulent Flow in a Confined Impinging Jet Reactor. Applied Mathematical Modelling Volume 35, Issue 4, April, Pages 1591–1602 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2010.09.035
Johnson, A., Eslinger, D., and Larsen, H.1998. An Abrasive Jetting Scale Removal System. Paper SPE-46026-MS presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Roundtable, 15-16 March, Houston, Texas. https://doi.org/10.2118/46026-MS.
Kofoed, S.S., Marketz, F., Krabbenhoeft, J. 2012. Slotted Liner for Continuously Acid Jetting Stimulation. Paper SPE-151405-MS presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 6-8 March, San Diego, California, USA. https://doi.org/10.2118/151405-MS
Marin, C., Nunez, M. S., Duque, E.D.. 2013. Enhanced Jetting Tool Integrated with Sand/Well Vacuuming Technology Optimizes Cleaning and Stimulation for Heavy-Oil Wells. Paper SPE-163923-MS presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing & Well Intervention Conference & Exhibition, 26-27 March, The Woodlands, Texas, USA. https://doi.org/10.2118/163923-MS
Nagendra S.V.H., Bhagavanulu D.V.S., and Nanda P. 2017. Computational Study of Three-Dimensional Wall Jet on Concave Surface. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power – Contemporary Research. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering pp 529–538. Springer, New Delhi. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2743-4_51
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Al-Otaibi, M.B., and Altameimi, Y.M. 2005. Wellbore Cleanup by Water Jetting and Enzyme Treatment in MRC Wells: Case Histories. Presented at the SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, 12-14 September, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 12—14 September. SPE-97427-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97427-MS.
Ndonhong, V., Belostrino, E., Zhu, D.. 2017. Acid Jetting in Carbonate Rocks: An Experimental Study. Paper SPE-180113-PA SPE Production & Operations, July. https://doi.org/10.2118/180113-PA.
Rajes, S., Shuchart, C.E., and Grubert, M.A. 2014. Advanced Completion and Stimulation Design Model for Maximum Reservoir Contact Wells. Paper SPE-171800-MS presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, 10-13 November, Abu Dhabi, UAE. https://doi.org/10.2118/171800-MS
Ridner, D., Frick, T., Zhu, D.. 2018. Influence of Transport Conditions on Optimal Injection Rate for Acid Jetting in Carbonate Reservoirs. Paper SPE-189546-MS Presented at the SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, 7-9 February, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA. https://doi.org/10.2118/189546-MS
Ries, F., Li, Y., Ri?mann, M., . 2018. "Database of Near-Wall Turbulent Flow Properties of a Jet Impinging on a Solid Surface under Different Inclination Angles" Fluids, 3(1), 5; doi:10.3390/fluids3010005
Ritchie, B., Abbasy, I., Pitts, M.J., . 2008. Challenges in Completing Long Horizontal Wells Selectively. Paper SPE-116541-MS presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, 20-22 October, Perth, Australia. https://doi.org/10.2118/116541-MS
Stanley, R., Portman, L.N., Diaz, J.D.. 2010. Global Application of Coiled-Tubing Acid Tunneling Yields Effective Carbonate Stimulation. Paper SPE-135604-MS presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 19-22 September, Florence, Italy. https://doi.org/10.2118/135604-MS
Wasserman, S. https://www.engineering.com. Choosing the Right Turbulence Model for Your CFD Simulation https://www.engineering.com/DesignSoftware/DesignSoftwareArticles/ArticleID/13743/Choosing-the-Right-Turbulence-Model-for-Your-CFD-Simulation.aspx(accessed 05 January 2017)