A Review of Responses of Bulk Gel Treatments in Injection Wells-Part II: Water Responses and Economic Assessments
- Munqith Aldhaheri (Missan Oil Company) | Mingzhen Wei (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Ali Alhuraishawy (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Baojun Bai (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Western Regional Meeting, 22-26 April, Garden Grove, California, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 2.7 Completion Fluids, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 2 Well completion, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics
- Bulk gel treatments, Economic assessments, Project review and data analysis, Water injection/production responses, Injection well conformance
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 115 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Polymer bulk gels have been widely applied to mitigate excessive water production in mature oil fields by correcting reservoir permeability heterogeneity. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the water responses and the economic assessments of injection-well gel treatments. The survey includes 61 field projects implemented between 1985 and 2014 and compiled from SPE papers and U.S. DOE reports. Ten parameters were evaluated according to the reservoir lithology, formation type, and recovery process using the univariate analysis, stacked histograms, and scatterplots.
Results indicated that gel treatments have very wide ranges of water injection/production responses and economic indicators. We identified that gel treatments do reduce the water production but not dramatically to really low levels. The water production continues to increase after the proactive treatments applied in undeveloped conformance problems at low water cuts (<50%). Contrarily, the water production decreases after the reactive treatments conducted in developed conformance issues at high water cuts (>50%). When successfully applied, gel treatments averagely reduce the water injection rate by 34% and the water cut by 10%; however, the water cut may also increase by 17%. For developed problems, the water cut may stabilize or increase after the remediation mainly in matrix-rock sandstone reservoirs, especially when small gel volumes are injected (<1000 barrels) into this formation type.
Economically, gel treatments are appraised solely based on the oil production response and both water responses are not considered in the evaluation. Typically, gel treatments have cost of incremental oil barrel of 2$/barrel and payout time of 9.2 months and function for 1.9 years. They have better water responses and economics in carbonates than in sandstones and in unconsolidated and naturally-fractured than in matrix-rock formations; however, they have reverse tends with respect to the gel effective time. The gel effective time significantly decreases with the channeling strength, the aperture of flow channels, and the temperature of injected drive-fluids. Generally, the water production response and economic parameters improve as the injected gel volume increases and the treatment timing advances in the flooding life. For different application environments, the present review provides reservoir engineers with updated ideas about what are the low, typical, and high performances of gel treatments when applied successfully and how other treatment aspects affect the performances.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||32|
Borling, D. C. (1994, January). Injection Conformance Control Case Histories Using Gels at the Wertz Field CO2 Tertiary Flood in Wyoming. In SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27825-MS.
El-Hadidi, S. M., Falade, G. K., Dabbouk, C., & Al-Ansari, F. (2000, June 1). Water Injection Profile Modification in a Layered Reservoir With Polymer Treatment. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/64503-PA.
Giudicelli, C. B., & Truchetet, R. A. (1993, January 1). Prediction of the Oil Rate Increment With Water Profile Control by Polymer Injection. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26608-MS.
Hild, G. P., & Wackowski, R. K. (1998, January 1). Results of the Injection Well Polymer Gel Treatment Program at the Rangely Weber. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39612-MS.
Hinds, C., Sayarpour, M., & Hameed, A. (2015, September 28). A New Perspective on Applying a Conformance Lookback Analysis for the Central Permian Basin Fields. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/175049-MS
Lantz, M., & Muniz, G. (2014, April 12). Conformance Improvement Using Polymer Gels: A Case Study Approach. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169072-MS.
Norman, C., Turner, B. O., Romero, J. L., Centeno, G. A., & Muruaga, E. (2006, January 1). A Review Of Over 100 Polymer Gel Injection Well Conformance Treatments In Argentina And Venezuela: Design, Field Implementation and Evaluation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/101781-MS.
Perez, D. M., Munoz, L. F., Acosta, W., Falla, J., Martinez, J., Vidal, G., Norman, C. (2012, January 1). Improving Sweep Efficiency In A Mature Waterflood; Balcon Field, Colombia. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150955-MS.
Ricks, G. V., & Portwood, J. T. (2000, January 1). Injection-side Application of MARCIT Polymer Gel Improves Waterflood Sweep Efficiency, Decreases Water-Oil Ratio, and Enhances Oil Recovery in the McElroy Field, Upton County, Texas. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59528-MS.
Smith, J. E. (1999, January 1). Practical Issues With Field Injection Well Gel Treatments. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/55631-MS.
Sydansk, R. D., and Southwell, G. P. (2000, November 1). More Than 12 Years of Experience With a Successful Conformance-Control Polymer-Gel Technology. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/66558-PA.
Sydansk, R. D., & Smith, T. B. (1988, January 1). Field Testing of a New Conformance-Improvement-Treatment Chromium (III) Gel Technology. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17383-MS.
Tweidt, L. I., Chase, W. D., Holowatuk, C. R., Lane, R. H., & Mitchell, C. M. (1997, January 1). Improving Sweep Efficiency in the Norman Wells Naturally Fractured Reservoir Through the Use of Polymer Gels: A Field Case History. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38901-MS.