Controlling Microwave Penetration and Absorption in Heavy Oil Reservoirs
- H. Liao (Texas A&M University) | M. Morte (Texas A&M University) | E. Bloom (Texas A&M University) | G. Huff (Texas A&M University) | B. Hascakir (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Western Regional Meeting, 22-26 April, Garden Grove, California, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes
- penetration depth, microwave heating, loss tangent, asphaltenes, dielectric constant
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 120 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
Microwave heating has great potential to recover heavy oil reservoirs, because it significantly reduces the heating time and consequently the cost of heavy oil extraction. Moreover, heavy crude oils contain high amounts of polar molecules (asphaltenes) and polar functional groups, making them great microwaving candidates. This study investigates the microwave effectiveness for a specific heavy oil reservoir focused on its polar components.
Furthermore, the impact of asphaltene precipitants and dispersants on microwave efficiency was investigated. A crude oil sample from Canada was subjected to microwave experiments for 30 seconds. Dielectric properties of the crude oil before and after exposure to microwave were mostly measured by using a vector network analyzer to quantify the overall polarity changes in the bulk crude. The impact of asphaltene precipitants (nC5 and nC7) and a dispersant (toluene) on microwave efficiency was also investigated. The crude oil sample was blended with nC5, nC7, or toluene at three varying doses (10%, 20%, or 50%) to investigate the impact of solvent dose on microwave efficiency. Microwave absorption and penetration depth were calculated to quantify the effectiveness of microwave heating.
It has been observed through dielectric property measurements that microwave energy was absorbed by mainly the asphaltenes. Dielectric constant and loss tangent values of the blends prepared with asphaltene precipitants (nC5 and nC7) and toluene were measured before and after exposure to microwave to quantify the microwave absorption in different blends. Although precipitant mixtures had higher dielectric constants, the dispersant mixtures had much higher microwave absorption due to higher loss tangents. This finding was further supported by penetration depth measurements, in which dispersant mixtures had lower values, which led to higher microwave absorption of the crude oil mixtures.
Microwave heating as a thermal enhanced oil recovery method is promising, however, complicated due to the uncontrollable nature of microwave penetration and absorption. This study reveals that while injection of an asphaltene precipitant to the desired reservoir locations can enhance the microwave penetration, injection of asphaltene dispersants will increase the microwave absorption. Cyclic injection of asphaltenes dispersants and precipitants may achieve the creation of effective heating spots within the reservoir by using only one microwave source.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Chhetri, A.B. and Islam, M.R. 2008. A Critical Review of Electromagnetic Heating for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Petroleum Science and Technology. Journal of Petroleum Technology 26 (14): 1619—1631. doi: 10.1080/10916460701287607
Abernethy, E. R. (1976, July 1). Production Increase of Heavy Oils by Electromagnetic Heating. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi: 10.2118/76-03-12
ASTM D2007-11(2016) Standard Test Method for Clay-gel Adsorption Chromatographic Method for Hydrocarbon Group Analysis, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1520/D2007-11R16
ASTM D3279-12e1 (2012) Method ASTM D 3279: Standard Test Method for Normal Heptane Insolubles., ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1520/D3279-12E01
Beal, C. (1946, December 1). The Viscosity of Air, Water, Natural Gas, Crude Oil and Its Associated Gases at Oil Field Temperatures and Pressures. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/946094-G
Bengtsson, N. E., & Ohlsson, T. (1974). Microwave heating in the food industry. Proceedings of the IEEE, 62(1), 44–55, doi: 10.1109/PROC.1974.9384.
Buckley, J., Hirasaki, G., Liu, Y., Drasek, S. V.,Wang, J., & Gill, B. (1998). Asphaltene Precipitation And Solvent Properties Of Crude Oils. Petroleum Science and Technology, 16(3-4), 251–285. doi:10.1080/10916469808949783
Carrizales, M. A.,Lake, L. W., & Johns, R. T. (2008, January 1). Production Improvement of Heavy-Oil Recovery by Using Electromagnetic Heating. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/115723-MS
Chakma, A., & Jha, K. N. (1992, January 1). Heavy-Oil Recovery from Thin Pay Zones by Electromagnetic Heating. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/24817-MS
Gabriel, C., Gabriel, S., Grant, E.H.et al. 1998. Dielectric parameters relevant to microwave dielectric heating. Royal Society of Chemistry 27: 213—224, doi: 10.1039/A827213Z.
Haque, K. E. (1999). Microwave energy for mineral treatment processes—a brief review. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 57(1), 1–24. doi:10.1016/s0301-7516(99)00009-5
Hascakir, B., Acar, C., Akin, S., Microwave Assisted Heavy Oil Production: An Experimental Approach, Energy and Fuels, 23(12), 6033–6039, 2009. doi: 10.1021/ef9007517
Hascakir, B., Akin, S., Recovery of Turkish Oil Shales by Electromagnetic Heating and Determination of the Dielectric Properties of Oil Shales by an Analytical Method, Energy and Fuels, 24(1), 503–509, 2010, doi: 10.1021/ef900868w
Kar, T., Hascakir, B., The Role of Resins, Asphaltenes, and Water in Water-Oil Emulsion Breaking with Microwave Heating, Energy and Fuels, 2015, 29, 3684–3690, doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00662
Mullins,Oliver C.,et al. "The Colloidal Structure of Crude Oil and the Structure of Oil Reservoirs." Energy & Fuels, vol. 21, no. 5, 2007, pp. 2785–2794., doi: 10.1021/ef0700883.
Mutyala, S., Fairbridge, C., Paré, J. J., Bélanger, J. M.,Ng, S., & Hawkins, R. (2010). Microwave applications to oil sands and petroleum: A review. Fuel Processing Technology, 91(2), 127–135. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2009.09.009
Onsager, L, Electric Moments of Molecules in Liquids, Journal of the American Chemical Society 1936 58 (8), 1486–1493, doi: 10.1021/ja01299a050
Ovalles, C., Fonseca, A., Lara, A., Alvarado, V., Urrecheaga, K., Ranson, A., & Mendoza, H. (2002, January 1). Opportunities of Downhole Dielectric Heating in Venezuela: Three Case Studies Involving Medium, Heavy and Extra-Heavy Crude Oil Reservoirs. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/78980-MS
Prakoso, A. A.,Punase, A. D., & Hascakir, B. (2017, February 1). A Mechanistic Understanding of Asphaltenes Precipitation from Varying-Saturate-Concentration Perspectives. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/177280-PA
Sahni, A., Kumar, M., & Knapp, R. B. (2000, January 1). Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/62550-MS
Shen, L. C.,Savre, W. C.,Price, J. M., & Athavale, K. (1985). Dielectric properties of reservoir rocks at ultra-high frequencies. Geophysics, 50(4), 692–704, doi: 10.1016/0148-9062(86)90412-2.
Stuerga, D. (n.d.). Microwave-Material Interactions and Dielectric Properties, Key Ingredients for Mastery of Chemical Microwave Processes. Microwaves in Organic Synthesis, 1–61. doi:10.1002/9783527619559.ch1
Trejo, F., Centeno, G., & Ancheyta, J. (2004). Precipitation, fractionation and characterization of asphaltenes from heavy and light crude oils. Fuel, 83(16), 2169–2175. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2004.06.008
Vermeulen, F., & McGee, B. (2000, August 1). In-Situ Electromagnetic Heating for Hydrocarbon Recovery and Environmental Remediation. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/00-08-DAS
Wattana, P., Fogler, H. S.,Yen, A., Garcìa, M. D., & Carbognani, L. (2005). Characterization of Polarity-Based Asphaltene Subfractions. Energy & Fuels, 19(1), 101–110. doi:10.1021/ef0499372
Weir, W. (1974). Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies. Proceedings of the IEEE, 62(1), 33–36. doi:10.1109/proc.1974.9382
WymanJ.Jr, (1936). Polarization and dielectric constant of liquids. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 58(8), 1482–1486. doi:10.1021/ja01299a049
Zhu, J., Kuznetsov, A.V., and Sandeep, K.P. 2007. Mathematical Modeling of Continuous Flow Microwave Heating of Liquids. International Journal of Thermal Sciences 46 (4): 328—341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2006.06.005.