Modeling Coupled Nonisothermal Reservoir/Wellbore Flow Behavior in Gas Reservoir Systems
- B. Xu (Texas A&M University) | S. Kabir (University of Houston) | A. R. Hasan (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Western Regional Meeting, 22-26 April, Garden Grove, California, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 4.3 Flow Assurance, 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing
- Coupled Reservoir/Wellbore, heat transfer, Nonisothermal
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 99 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Most analytical and numerical flow modelling presuppose isothermal flow behavior in the reservoir. However, for high rates and large consequent drawdown gas reservoirs, the nonisothermal behavior becomes the norm due to the Joule-Thomson (J-T) effect. Other factors, such as a fluid's adiabatic expansion (AE), heat convection, and the heat exchange with surrounding formations may also make contributions. Accounting for this nonisothermal flow behavior becomes a necessity for accurately estimating a wells's performance due to changes in fluid properties and also from the standpoints of wellbore flow assurance and its mechanical integrity.
This paper starts with the general energy balance in the reservoir and presents a semianalytical solution to estimate the nonisothermal, single-phase gas temperature in the reservoir during production. This solution considers the J-T effect, adiabatic expansion effect, transient temperature behavior, heat convection, and heat exchange of fluid with over and under-burden formtions. The variations of gas viscosity, density, J-T coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure are taken into consideration by making a small spatial step at each computional node. A field case study validates the time-variant wellbore temperature profiles with the coupled reservoir heat transfer model. Distributed temperature measurements during a drill stem test (DST) made this validation feasible.
The J-T effect dominates in the near wellbore region due to dramatic pressure change. The J-T induced cooling effect is usually happened for gas in the reservoir. However, for high-pressure systems, the gas behaves like a liquid and gets heated up. For some intermediate pressure intervals, the gas temperature slightly increases with expansion, reach a plateau, and then gradually decreases as the gas moves toward the wellbore with declining pressure. By coupling the reservoir heat transfer model with the wellbore heat transfer model, one can monitor both production and flow assurance related issures that may arise either from thermodynamic solids or tubular mechanical integrity.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||19|
App, J.F. 2009. Field Cases: Nonisothermal Behavior Due to Joule-Thomson and Transient Fluid Expansion/Compression Effects. Paper SPE-124338-MS presented at the 2009 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124338-MS.
App, J.F. 2010. Nonisothermal and Productivity Behavior of High-Pressure Reservoirs. SPE J 15 (1): 50–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114705-PA.
App, J.F. and Yoshioka, K. 2013. Impact of Reservoir Permeability on Flowing Sandface Temperatures: Dimensionless Analysis. SPE J. 18 (4): 685–694. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146951-PA.
Chevarunotai, N., Hasan, A.R., and Kabir, C.S. 2015. Transient Flowing-Fluid Temperature Modeling in Oil Reservoirs for Flow Associated with Large Drawdowns. Paper SPE-175008-MS presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Houston, Texas, 28-30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/175008-MS.
Hasan, A. R., Kabir, C. S., & Wang, X. (2009). A Robust Steady-State Model for Flowing-Fluid Temperature in Complex Wells. SPEPO 24 (2): 269–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109765-PA.
Lauwerier, H. A. 1955. The transport of heat in an oil layer caused by the injection of hot fluid. Applied Scientific Research, Section A 5 (2): 145–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03184614.
Spillette, A.G. 1965. Heat Transfer During Hot Fluid Injection Into an Oil Reservoir. PETCO Journal paper. 64-04-06 PETCO. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65-04-06.