Steps Toward Designing the Optimum Outflow Control Device for SAGD using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation
- Lei Li (University of Alberta) | Yongsheng Ma (University of Alberta) | Mahdi Mahmoudi (RGL Reservoir Management) | Vahidoddin Fattahpour (RGL Reservoir Management) | Carlos F. Lange (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, 13-14 March, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 7.6.6 Artificial Intelligence, 2.1.3 Completion Equipment, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3.2.3 Produced Sand / Solids Management and Control, 7 Management and Information, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 7.6 Information Management and Systems, 3.2 Well Operations and Optimization
- SAGD, Outflow Control Device, Steam distribution, Computational Fluid Dynamics
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 133 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Effective steam distribution in the injector is the key to achieve efficient and uniform reservoir heat up in SAGD operation. The focus of this research is on simulating the flow dynamics in outflow control device (OCD), the annular space between the liner and tubing, the slots, and the gap between the slotted liner and formation, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The objective is to use the approximated metamodel to optimize the OCD design and achieve more even steam distribution through the slots.
A CFD model of the steam is developed through a systematic investigation of different domain sizes to study the effect of the pressure drop across the nozzle and the steam distribution. An evenness factor is proposed to quantify the overall steam distribution and to identify problematic slot areas. Based on the developed model, the OCD design is simplified and parameterized to conduct optimization efficiently. With the CFD expert system for steam simulation, the robust simulation models corresponding to different designs are obtained, providing accurate simulation results to the optimization algorithm. Using metamodeling, the response to the five design variables is derived, and the optimum is obtained subsequently. A cylindrical region representing the vicinity of the liner is added to the periphery of the slots to translate the optimization results into the realistic design.
The CFD simulation and OCD design optimization show that the steam distribution is highly controlled by the OCD design, mainly by the nozzles’ distance to the central plane. The novel evenness factor provides a quantitative assessment of the effect of design changes and it enables the application of advanced design optimization algorithms. Fifty-five numerical experiments are conducted to obtain the relationship between the proposed evenness factor and the design variables. The overall design of the OCD can be fine-tuned to account for the steam distribution. At the beginning of the heating cycle, some flow reversal is found in some specific slots, which may lead to sand production, plugging and erosion. When the distance between the two sets of nozzles is extended to 50 mm, the normalized evenness factor shows that the steam distribution can be improved by 12.5% from the original design in which the distance used to be zero. Moreover, the velocity magnitudes in the reverse flow affected region are also reduced in the optimized design.
The CFD simulation is a powerful tool to understand the flow dynamics through OCDs. This study applies a robust CFD model to investigate the complex flow interactions that affect steam distribution through OCDs to improve their design and thus to improve the steam distribution. The provided model and the design optimization algorithm could ultimately improve the heating efficiency.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Bedry, Mark, and Joel Shaw. 2012. "Using a New Intelligent Well Technology Completions Strategy to Increase Thermal EOR Recoveries - SAGD Field Trial." In SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-154760-MS. doi: 10.2118/154760-MS.
Butler, R.M. 1994. "Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: Concept, Development, Performance And Future." Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 33 (2). Petroleum Society of Canada: 44–50. doi:10.2118/94-02-05.
Cavender, Travis Wayne, Timothy Hunter, and Robert Pipkin. 2011. "Method of Minimizing Liner Expansion Issues in Horizontal Thermal Applications." In SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-150493-MS. doi: 10.2118/150493-MS.
Das, Swapan Kumar. 2005. "Well Bore Hydraulics in a SAGD Well Pair." In SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-97922-MS. doi: 10.2118/97922-MS.
Etesami, D., and S. Ahsan. 2013. "The Optimization of a Slotted Liner Design for a Horizontal Well." Petroleum Science and Technology 31 (21): 2178–90. doi:10.1080/10916466.2010.551807.
Kumar, Avinav, Anil Kumar Srivastava, and Ravi Kumar. 2010. "Design Optimization of Slotted Liner Completions in Horizontal Wells of Mumbai High Field." In SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-133321-MS. doi: 10.2118/133321-MS.
Kyanpour, Mohammad, and Zhangxin Chen. 2014. "Design and Optimization of Orifice Based Flow Control Devices in Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage: A Case Study." In SPE Heavy and Extra Heavy Oil Conference: Latin America. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-171109-MS. doi: 10.2118/171109-MS.
Kyanpour, Mohammad, and Zhangxing Chen. 2013. "A New Approach for Designing Steam Splitters and Inflow Control Devices in Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage." In SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-165487-MS. doi: 10.2118/165487-MS.
Lastiwka, Marty, Chris Bailey, Bruce James, and Da Zhu. 2017. "A Practical Approach to the Use and Design of Flow Control Devices in SAGD." In SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-185005-MS. doi: 10.2118/185005-MS.
Li, Lei, Carlos F Lange, and Yongsheng Ma. 2017. "Association of Design and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Intent in Flow Control Product Optimization." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, March. SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England, 95440541769735. doi: 10.1177/0954405417697352.
Liu, Jikai, and Yongsheng Ma. 2017. "Design of Pipeline Opening Layout through Level Set Topology Optimization." Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 55 (5). Springer Berlin Heidelberg: 1613–28. doi:10.1007/s00158-016-1602-3.
Liu, Jikai, Yongsheng Ma, Junyu Fu, and Kajsa Duke. 2015. "A Novel CACD/CAD/CAE Integrated Design Framework for Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Parts." Advances in Engineering Software 87 (November). Elsevier Ltd: 13–29. doi:10.1016/j.advengsoft.2015.04.013.
Medina, Max. 2015. "Design and Field Evaluation of Tubing-Deployed Passive Outflow-Control Devices in Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Injection Wells." SPE Production & Operations 30 (4): 283–92. SPE-165563-PA. doi: 10.2118/165563-PA.
Noroozi, Mehdi, Marco Melo, R.P.(Pete) Singbeil, and Blair Neil. 2014. "Investigation of Orifice Type Flow-Control Device Properties on the SAGD Process Using Coupled Wellbore Reservoir Modeling." In SPE Heavy and Extra Heavy Oil Conference: Latin America. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-171131-MS. doi: 10.2118/171131-MS.
Robinson, Bill, Joseph Kenny, Ivan Lazaro Hernandez-Hdez, Jeimy Andrea Bernal, and Rob Chelak. 2005. "Geostatistical Modeling Integral to Effective Design and Evaluation of SAGD Processes of an Athabasca Oilsands Reservoir, A Case Study." In SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-97743-MS. doi: 10.2118/97743-MS.
"Steam Table." 2017. Accessed December 11. http://www.spiraxsarco.com/Resources/Pages/Steam-Tables/saturated-steam.aspx.
Xie, Jueren. 2015. "Slotted Liner Design Optimization for Sand Control in SAGD Wells." In SPE Thermal Well Integrity and Design Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-178457-MS. doi: 10.2118/178457-MS.
Yang, Qinwen, and Deyi Xue. 2014. "Comparative Study on Influencing Factors in Adaptive Metamodeling." Engineering with Computers 31 (3). Springer London: 561–77. doi:10.1007/s00366-014-0358-x.