Measurement of Dynamics Phenomena in Downhole Tools - Requirements, Theory and Interpretation
- Andreas Hohl (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Christian Herbig (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Pedro Arevalo (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Hanno Reckmann (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | John Macpherson (Baker Hughes, a GE Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 6-8 March, Fort Worth, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition
- 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.2.2 Drilling Optimisation, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 1.6.3 Drilling Optimisation
- sensor placement, Measurement requirements, drilling optimization, drilling dysfunctions, Drilling dynamics
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- 235 since 2007
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Downhole tools in bottom-hole assemblies are subject to high dynamic loads during drilling operations. The negative impacts of these dynamic loads can be inefficient drilling with low rate of penetration (ROP), reduced downhole directional and formation measurement service quality, and downhole tool failures with associated non-productive time.
The dynamic phenomena can be categorized by direction into axial, torsional and lateral vibrations, and by excitation mechanism into forced excitation, self-excitation, and parameter excitation. Forced vibrations are mainly caused by imbalances in the drilling system or by the working principles of downhole tools such as the mud motor. Self-excitation mechanisms are mostly driven by the interaction of the bit, reamer or drilling system with the formation, and can cause detrimental dynamic behavior such as torsional stick-slip, bit bounce, and backward whirl.
These diverse vibration phenomena require tailored mitigation strategies. To a certain extent, these mitigation strategies are contradictory. Misinterpretation of downhole measurements can lead to even worse vibration levels with severe consequences for reliability, ROP, and measurement quality.
As a consequence, downhole measurement devices should differentiate vibration phenomena. This distinct differentiation could then be used to choose appropriate mitigation strategies.
This paper analyses and defines the requirements for dynamics measurement devices. The specification, number, and placement of sensors and their associated sampling rates are examined to distinguish vibration directions and phenomena. The usefulness of these requirements is demonstrated using examples of torsional stick-slip and high-frequency torsional oscillations, lateral vibrations, and backward whirl. The results of kinematic modeling are analyzed and compared to high-speed vibration data from field runs measured with the latest generation of vibration measurement tools. Possible misinterpretation of vibration conditions in the case of inappropriate measurements is shown. The results are discussed by comparing theoretical modeling with field data.
The defined requirements and guidelines enable a flawless interpretation of downhole vibration measurements and unveil drilling optimization opportunities. Different vibration phenomena can be identified reliably and appropriate mitigation strategies applied in real time at the wellsite by the driller or automation systems. This finally reduces the vibration load on the drilling system, increasing its reliability and performance.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||21|
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