Simple Quantitative Characterisation and Grouping of Electrofacies in Shaly Sandstone Formations
- Kazeem A. Lawal (First Exploration & Petroleum Development Company) | Cyril E. Ukaonu (First Exploration & Petroleum Development Company) | Mathilda I. Ovuru (First Exploration & Petroleum Development Company) | Stella I. Eyitayo (First Exploration & Petroleum Development Company) | Saka Matemilola (First Exploration & Petroleum Development Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, 31 July - 2 August, Lagos, Nigeria
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 5.5.2 Core Analysis
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Electrofacies modelling, which includes identification and grouping, is a critical part of reservoir characterisation. Because it governs the estimation and distribution of key rock and rock-fluid properties, the electrofacies model, to a large extent ((if augmented with core-derived information), determines the quality of static and dynamic reservoir models. Unfortunately, owing to the lack of a universally acceptable method, the outcome of electrofacies modelling is not always unique. This explains the usual difficulty in achieving a meaningful comparison of different reservoirs or correlating different packages, even with the same set of well logs.
To address the problem, this paper presents a set of mathematical models and simple workflows for quantitative characterisation and grouping of electrofacies in shaly sandstone formations. The gamma ray, density, and neutron, which are commonly available lithology-indicating and absolute-value reading logs, are integrated to define a quantity called composite shaliness parameter. The use of a simple scaling rule ensures that the values of the shaliness parameter are limited to the 0 - 100% range. To make the model universally applicable, the scaling of the shaliness parameter covers the ranges of values of the indicated logs in most shaly sandstone formations.
Although the models and workflow are intended to be universally applicable to all shaly sands to enable global benchmarking of formations as may be necessary, provision is made for local applications. In the latter cases, a simple procedure for adapting the scaling rule to specific local problems is presented.
Using field examples from the Niger Delta, the validity of the proposed method is examined. It is evaluated against mobility tests, core analysis and spectral gamma-ray log, which are techniques known for better reservoir characterisation at different scales. It is found that the results of the proposed method are in satisfactory agreement with findings from these reference characterisation techniques.
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