Simulation of Immiscible CO2 Injection in a Fractured Carbonate Reservoir, Bati Raman Field, Turkey
- A. Spivak (Allan Spivak, Inc.) | D. Karaoguz (Turkish Petroleum Corp.) | K. Issever (Turkish Petroleum Corp.) | J.S. Nolen (Western Atlas Integrated Technologies)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE California Regional Meeting, 5-7 April, Bakersfield, California
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 1989. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.6 Natural Gas, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.8.6 Naturally Fractured Reservoir, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems
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This paper describes the use of a dual-porosity, fractured reservoir simulator to investigate the application of the immiscible CO2 injection process in Turkey's largest Oil Field. Injection process in Turkey's largest Oil Field. Injection of CO2 into the Bati Raman field for the purpose of enhanced recovery commenced in purpose of enhanced recovery commenced in 1986. The source of the CO2 is the nearby Dodan gas field, approximately 89 km from Bati Raman. This project is currently the world's largest application of the immiscible CO2 injection process.
Theoretical studies of both cyclic stimulation of wells and the gas drive process (continuous gas injection) are process (continuous gas injection) are described along with field results for the first two years of gas injection.
The Bati Raman Field in Southeastern Turkey was discovered in 1961 and is operated by Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO). It is the largest oil field in Turkey, having an estimated 1.85 billion stb [300 x 10(6) stock-tank m3] initial oil in place (IOIP). The Bati Raman Field is unique in that it is a fractured limestone reservoir containing low, gravity oil (12 degrees API [0.986 gm/cm3]). Because of the unfavorable oil properties (low gravity, high oil viscosity and low solution gas), primary recovery has been quite inefficient (less than 2% of initial oil in place). Therefore, there is great incentive to implement an effective enhanced recovery process.
GEOLOGY AND FIELD HISTORY
A detailed review of the geology and field history of the Bati Raman Field is given in Reference 3. Some of the more important geological and historical data are summarized below.
The producing formation of the Bati Raman field is the Cretaceous Garzan Limestone. The reservoir is an elongated east-west asymmetric anticline, measuring about 10.5 miles [17 km] by 2.5 miles [4 km]. The reservoir limits consist of an oil-water contact at about 1,970 ft [600 m] subsea to the north and west, a fault system to the southwest and a permeability pinchout to the south. The reservoir depth averages 4,300 ft [1,310 m] with a gross thickness of about 210 ft [64 m].
The Garzan limestone is a fractured vuggy limestone. The vertical variation in fracture intensity observed within the Garzan limestone is due to vertical variations in rock competency, which in turn is due to facies changes.
Based on detailed study of log and core data, it was concluded that for the purpose of reservoir studies, the Garzan purpose of reservoir studies, the Garzan could be divided into a lower and upper zone. The lower Garzan is generally less porous and permeable than the upper. porous and permeable than the upper. P. 179
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