Marcellus Shale Toe-up Laterals: Hydraulics and Well Control Implications
- Tawfik Elshehabi (West Virginia University) | Ilkin Bilgesu (West Virginia University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, 4-6 October , Lexington, Kentucky, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 0.2.1 Wellbore integrity, 5.8 Unconventional and Complex Reservoirs, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 3 Production and Well Operations, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 0.2 Wellbore Design, 2.10 Well Integrity, 7 Management and Information, 7.2 Risk Management and Decision-Making, 6.3 Safety, 1.7.5 Well Control, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 2.10 Well Integrity, 1.7 Pressure Management
- Well Control‎, Marcellus Shale‎, Toe-up Laterals, Mud Hydraulics
- 11 in the last 30 days
- 146 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
Unconventional shale resources are drilled horizontally following the geologic bed dip upward or downward and completed with multi-stage fracturing to maximize reservoir contact. A recent study in Oklahoma claimed that toe-up (inclined upward) laterals yield the highest production rate and estimated ultimate recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate drilling fluid hydraulics and well control operations in toe-up laterals and compare the results to toe-down laterals.
This study uses a multiphase steady-state hydraulics and a dynamic well control simulator. A hydraulics model was developed and verified with a data from a recently drilled Marcellus shale lateral in Monongalia County, WV in 2015. Static and dynamic pressure profiles were examined at drilling flow rate and at slow pump rate. Further, this research studies gas kick behavior and well control practices for kicks experienced at shallow, middle, and deep zones in the lateral section. Additionally, it considers the impact of operational parameters and influx characteristics on wellbore integrity.
The results of this study showed that the developed hydraulics model successfully predicted the pump pressure with an accuracy of 0.97. Larger kick sizes result in higher pit gain, gas flow rate, choke, and casing shoe pressures in toe-down laterals. In contrast, in toe-up laterals, the higher the kick size, the longer the circulation times with an insignificant impact on the choke and shoe pressures. In toe-up laterals, gas bubbles migrated towards the toe and accumulated in high side pockets. Likewise, choke experienced less pressure, volume, and gas discharge rate for extended periods of time in toe-up laterals. Therefore, higher circulation rates and longer circulation times were essential to flush out the dispersed and trapped gas bubbles. The closer the kick location to the vertical section of the well, the shorter the circulation time needed. However, kicks experienced at the heel resulted in higher pit gain, gas discharge rate, choke pressure, and consequently high casing shoe pressure.
Identifying the consequences of drilling toe-up laterals on hydraulics and well control is crucial for drilling operations. This improves rig and personnel safety and reduces the blowout associated risks. Accordingly, it is critical to verify the well integrity by monitoring surface choke, casing shoe, and constant bottomhole pressures throughout the entire well control operations.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Bidiwala, I. and Orr, B. 2014. What it Will Take to Sustain the Shale Boom. Energy Journal doi: http://www.oliverwyman.com/insights/publications/2014/nov/what-it-will-take-to-sustain-the-shale-boom.html#.V3LBL_krJhF.
Brito, R., Pereyra, E. and Sarica, C. 2016a. Effect of Well Trajectory on Liquid Removal in Horizontal Gas Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, UAE, 26-28 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/181423-MS.
Brito, R., Pereyra, E. and Sarica, C. 2016b. Existence of Severe Slugging in Toe-Up Horizontal Gas Wells. Presented at the SPE North America Artificial Lift Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 25-27 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/181217-MS.
Choe, J. 2001. Advanced Two-Phase Well Control Analysis. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 40 (05) doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/01-05-02.
Choe, J., Schubert, J. and Juvkam-Wold, H. 2005. Well-Control Analyses on Extended-Reach and Multilateral Trajectories. SPE Drilling & Completion 20 (02): 101 - 108. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97465-PA.
Elshehabi, T. and Bilgesu, I. 2016a. Well Integrity and Pressure Control in Unconventional Reservoirs: A Comparative Study of Marcellus and Utica Shales. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Canton, Ohio, USA, 13-15 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/184056-MS.
Elshehabi, T. and Bilgesu, I. 2015. Impact of Drilling with Oil Based Mud on Well Control in Horizontal Shale Gas Wells. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, 13-15 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/177294-MS.
Guo, Q., Ji, L., Rajabov, V., Friedheim, J.E., Portella, C. and Wu, R. 2012. Shale Gas Drilling Experience and Lessons Learned from Eagle Ford. Presented at the SPE Americas Unconventional Resources Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA, 5-7 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/155542-MS.
Johnson, A., Rezmer-Cooper, I., Bailey, T. and McCann, D. 1995. Gas Migration: Fast, Slow Or Stopped. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 28 February-2 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29342-MS.
Kaufman, P., Atwood, K., Forrest, G., Walker, K., Wutherich, K., Delozier, D., Perakis, A., Borchardt, S. and Hauser, K. 2013. Marcellus Shale Gas Asset Optimization Driven by Technology Integration. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 10-13 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164345-MS.
Matthews, J.L. and Bourgoyne, A.T., J. 1983. Techniques for Handling Upward Migration of Gas Kicks in a Shut-in Well. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 20-23 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11376-MS.
Monteiro, E.N., Ribeiro, P.R. and Lomba, R.F.T. 2010. Study of the PVT Properties of Gas--Synthetic-Drilling-Fluid Mixtures Applied to Well Control. SPE Drilling & Completion 25 (01): 45 - 52. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116013-PA.
O'Bryan, P.L., Bourgoyne, A.T., Jr., Monger, T.G. and Kopcso, D.P. 1988. An Experimental Study of Gas Solubility in Oil-Based Drilling Fluids. SPE Drilling Engineering 3 (01): 33 - 42. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15414-PA.
Rader, D.W., Bourgoyne, A.T., J. and Ward, R.H. 1975. Factors Affecting Bubble-Rise Velocity Of Gas Kicks. Journal of Petroleum Technology 27 (05): 571 - 584. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4647-PA.
Ridley, K.M., Billa, R.J., Mota, J.F. and Jurgens, M. 2013. Eagle Ford Shale Well Control: Drilling and Tripping in Unconventional Oil and Gas Plays. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, 28-30 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163984-MS.
Santos, O.L.A. 1991. Important Aspects of Well Control for Horizontal Drilling Including Deepwater Situations. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 11-14 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21993-MS.
Zhang, J. and Wieseneck, J. 2011. Challenges and Surprises of Abnormal Pore Pressures in the Shale Gas Formations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA, 30 October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145964-MS.