Constraining the Complexity of Stimulated Reservoir Volume during
Multi-Stage Hydraulic Fracturing of Horizontal Wells through
Inter-Well Pressure Hit Modeling
- A. Rangriz Shokri (University of Alberta) | R. J. Chalaturnyk (University of Alberta) | D. Bearinger (Nexen Energy ULC) | C. Virues (Nexen Energy ULC) | J. Lehmann (Nexen Energy ULC)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 9-11 October, San Antonio, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 2 Well completion, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.4.1 Fracture design and containment, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing
- Pressure Hit, Stimulated Fractures, Shale Basin, Hydraulic Fracturing
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 975 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
To determine the degree of connectivity and complexity of a stimulated fracture network, a prescriptive completion program was undertaken in the Horn River Shale Basin which enabled continuous monitoring of pressure interactions among horizontal wells during multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. This paper introduces a novel approach to characterize the stimulated fracture network, and consequently, to optimize the stimulation, wellbore placement, and re-fracturing designs, by integrating the pressure hits captured from passive wellbores on a pad during fracturing operations. If effective, it may also provide a cost-effective alternative to microseismic monitoring.
The workflow initially considers a rigorous data analysis on available pressure hits at each frac-stage in time and space, including the location of pressure events, time of flights to offsetting stimulation, and the magnitude and intensity of pressure hits/falloffs. Streamline simulation, assisted with a hydraulic fracturing module, is then used to match the pressure hits/falloffs in the passive wells. This ultimately provides a dynamic probabilistic 3D map of the fracture network growth, reservoir complexity and inter-well connectivity. The fundamental mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing and the interactions across natural and induced fractures (fracture initiation/propagation/growth) are implemented by means of an advanced coupled hydro-mechanical code, based on distinct element method.
Results from initial data analyses were fed into a hydro-mechanical model, which incorporated the physics of the hydraulic fracturing process, in order to reproduce the pressure hit signatures. An assisted streamline-based technique was used to simulate various scenarios of pressure hit responses to construct a database of standard pressure hit/falloff patterns. This database, compiled into a dynamic 3D map, facilitated a probabilistic approach to calculate a robust estimate range of stimulated fracture network of the pad area. This database can be subsequently used in future stimulation and re-fracturing designs. The backbone of the highly complex fracture network, extracted from pressure hit/falloff data, was found to closely align with high-resolution microseismic data.
Calibration of the hydro-mechanical model using the pressure hit data provides increased confidence in the use of the model to optimize well placement and hydraulic fracturing designs. In the absence of microseismic data, this unique workflow has the potential to deliver real-time on-site monitoring of fracturing operation at a reduced cost and acceptable accuracy, to provide additional statistics on complexity of stimulated reservoir volume, and to offer a better assessment of the likely range of the induced fracture network among horizontal wells.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||24|
Asadollahi, P., Invernizzi, M.C.A., Addotto, S. (2010) Experimental Validation of Modified Barton's Model for Rock Fractures, Rock Mech Rock Eng 43 (5): 597&-613. doi:10.1007/s00603-010-0085-6
Bandis, S.C., Lumsden, A.C., Barton, N.R. (1983) Fundamentals of Rock Joint Deformation, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 20(6): 249&-268, ISSN 0148-9062, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(83)90595-8.
Blanton, T. L. (1982) An Experimental Study of Interaction Between Hydraulically Induced and Pre-Existing Fractures. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/10847-MS
Cai, M., Horii, H. (1992) A Constitutive Model of Highly Jointed Rock Masses, Mechanics of Materials, 13(3): 217&-246, ISSN 0167-6636, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-6636(92)90004-W.
Cundall, P.A. (1988) Formulation of A Three-Dimensional Distinct Element Model—Part I. A Scheme to Detect and Represent Contacts in A System Composed of Many Polyhedral Blocks, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 25(3): 107&-116, ISSN 0148-9062, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(88)92293-0.
Cundall, P.A., Hart, R.D. (1992) Numerical Modelling of Discontinua, Engineering Computations, 9(2): 101&-113, doi: 10.1108/eb023851
Dahi-Taleghani, A., & Olson, J. E. (2011) Numerical Modeling of Multistranded-Hydraulic-Fracture Propagation: Accounting for the Interaction Between Induced and Natural Fractures. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/124884-PA
Deisman, N., Mas Ivars, D., & Chalaturnyk, R. J. (2009). An Adaptive Continuum/Discontinuum Coupled Reservoir Geomechanics Simulation Approach for Fractured Reservoirs. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/119254-MS
Fu, P., Johnson, S. M. and Carrigan, C. R. (2013), An Explicitly Coupled Hydro-Geomechanical Model for Simulating Hydraulic Fracturing in Arbitrary Discrete Fracture Networks, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 37: 2278&-2300. doi:10.1002/nag.2135
Gu, H., Weng, X., Lund, J. B., Mack, M. G., Ganguly, U., & Suarez-Rivera, R. (2012) Hydraulic Fracture Crossing Natural Fracture at Non-orthogonal Angles: A Criterion and Its Validation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/139984-PA
Hossain, M. M., Rahman, M. K., & Rahman, S. S. (2000) Volumetric Growth and Hydraulic Conductivity of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs during Hydraulic Fracturing: A Case Study Using Australian Conditions. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/63173-MS
Jing, L., Nordlund, E., Stephansson, O. (1994) A 3-D Constitutive Model for Rock Joints with Anisotropic Friction and Stress Dependency in Shear Stiffness, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 31(2): 173&-178, ISSN 0148-9062, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)92808-8.
King, G. E. (2010). Thirty Years of Gas Shale Fracturing: What Have We Learned? Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/133456-MS
Lamont, N., & Jessen, F. W. (1963) The Effects of Existing Fractures in Rocks on the Extension of Hydraulic Fractures. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/419-PA
Lehmann, J., Budge, J., Palghat, A., Petr, C., & Pyecroft, J. (2016) Expanding Interpretation of Interwell Connectivity and Reservoir Complexity through Pressure Hit Analysis and Microseismic Integration, Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/179173-MS
Nagel, N. B., Gil, I., Sanchez-Nagel, M., & Damjanac, B. (2011) Simulating Hydraulic Fracturing in Real Fractured Rocks - Overcoming the Limits of Pseudo3D Models, Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/140480-MS
Nagel, N. B., Sanchez, M. A., & Lee, B. (2012) Gas Shale Hydraulic Fracturing: A Numerical Evaluation of the Effect of Geomechanical Parameters, Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/152192-MS
Nagel, N.B., Sanchez-Nagel, M.A., Zhang, F. (2013) Coupled Numerical Evaluations of the Geomechanical Interactions Between a Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation and a Natural Fracture System in Shale Formations, Rock Mech Rock Eng 46(3): 581&-609. doi:10.1007/s00603-013-0391-x
Nassir, M., Settari, A., & Wan, R. G. (2010) Modeling Shear Dominated Hydraulic Fracturing as a coupled fluid-solid interaction. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/131736-MS
Palmer, I. D., & Moschovidis, Z. A. (2010) New Method To Diagnose and Improve Shale Gas Completions. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/134669-MS
Pyecroft, J., Lehmann, J., Petr, C., Lypkie, K., Purdy, I., Zafar, H., Meeks, D. (2016) Interwell Hydraulic Fracture Interaction Between Multistage Stimulated Wells and a Multi Zone Slant Open Hole Observation Well Placed in the Canadian Horn River Basin. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/179174-MS
Rahman, M. M., Aghighi, M. A., Rahman, S. S., & Ravoof, S. A. (2009) Interaction Between Induced Hydraulic Fracture and Pre-Existing Natural Fracture in a Poro-Elastic Environment: Effect of Pore Pressure Change and the Orientation of Natural Fractures. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/122574-MS
Renshaw, C.E., Pollard, D.D. (1995) An Experimentally Verified Criterion for Propagation Across Unbounded Frictional Interfaces in Brittle, Linear Elastic Materials, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 32(3): 237&-249, ISSN 0148-9062, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)00037-4.
Sardinha, C. M., Petr, C., Lehmann, J., Pyecroft, J. F., & Merkle, S. (2014) Determining Interwell Connectivity and Reservoir Complexity Through Frac Pressure Hits and Production Interference Analysis. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/171628-MS
Virues, C., Budge, J., & Von Lunen, E. (2015) Microseismic-Derived Ultimate Expected Stage by Stage Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Unconventional Multi-Fractured Horizontal 10 Well Half Pad - Canadian Horn River Basin Case Study. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/175934-MS
Warpinski, N. R., & Teufel, L. W. (1987) Influence of Geologic Discontinuities on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation (includes associated papers 17011 and 17074). Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/13224-PA
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C.-E., Wu, R., & Gu, H. (2011) Modeling of Hydraulic-Fracture-Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/140253-PA