Design and Implementation of a Field Test for Biological Based VOC Emission Control for an Oil and Gas Production Facility in East Texas
- Shooka Khoramfar (Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University-Kingsville) | Kim D. Jones (Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University-Kingsville) | James Boswell (Boswell Environmental) | George E. King (Apache Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 9-11 October, San Antonio, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 7.4 Energy Economics, 4.3.4 Scale, 3.1.6 Gas Lift, 7.4.3 Market analysis /supply and demand forecasting/pricing, 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 6.5.1 Air Emissions, 7 Management and Information, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 3.1 Artificial Lift Systems
- Biofiltration, Air Pollution Control, Crude Oil Storage Facilities, VOC Emissions, Oil and Gas
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 175 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Biological based emissions control has been demonstrated to be an efficient and cost effective alternative to thermal oxidation technology or flaring for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the forest products and paint and coatings industries. This type of technology applicationhas promising advantages such as the potential for a low carbon footprint, low secondary pollutants such as NOx and SOx, lower energy demands, and lower cost. The objective of this project was to design and implement a sequential field scale biotrickling-biofilter treatment unit to remove VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emissions at the Apache TAMU#2 well storage tank battery in Snook, Texas.
The field scale biotreatment system included a biotrickling filter followed by a biofilter with the total treatment volume of 100 ft3, skid mounted on a 22 foot trailer. The biotrickling filter was packed with structured cross flow media with large surface area and high void fraction designed to remove the more water soluble compounds and control the humidity and temperature variations of the inlet gas stream. The biofilter unit was loaded with plastic spheres packed with compost which is referred to as the engineered media. Each of the bio-oxidation units was operated at the air flow rate of 25 CFM and empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 2 minutes. The system was inoculated with local stormwater and wastewater from a sedimentation basinclarifier of a local refinery to provide a mixed culture of microorganisms for degradation of the VOC emissions.
VOC emissions were collected from the headspace of a storage tank battery leading into a pressure relief vent system. Based on the photo ionization detector (PID) measurements at the inlet of the bio-oxidation unit, the VOC concentration loadings was cyclic and appeared to be correlated to the gas lift cycle of liquid loading to the crude oil storage tank.
During the evaluation period, the biotrickling unit demonstrated a surprisingly higher removal efficiency compared to the biofilter. This may be related to the more stable and higher density of biomass growth observed on the surface of the cross flow media. The lower removal efficiency in the biofilter unit could be due to the lack of uniform moisture and nutrients in the second vessel as a result of spray nozzle inefficiency. This aspect of operation can be further optimized by changing the nozzle and the frequency of watering/spraying of the compost media. A removal efficiency of 50-60% for the total VOCs, across the complete unit, was achieved during the 3 month evaluation period while the unit was operated at an average inlet VOC concentration of 400 ppm.
The relatively high concentration of alkenes and alkanes (compared to aromatics and water soluble organics in this crude oil vapor), may have decreased the degradation of the total VOCs in the bio-oxidation unit because these long-chain compounds are more difficult to biodegrade by bacterial biofilms in an aerobic environment.
The results suggest biological emission treatment systems may be cost effective when compared to thermal oxidizers and flares and should be evaluated as a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to mitigate HAPs (and VOCs) from some oil and gas operations.
This innovative biological emissions control technology effectively controlled the cyclic emissions produced at the remote site. The strong increase in removal of VOCs after the oil refinery wastewater inoculation suggests an important optimization parameter for more rapid acclimation and increased efficiency for the system in the future applications.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Álvarez-Hornos F. J., Lafita C., Martínez-Soria V., Penya-Roja J. M., Pérez M. C., & Gabaldón C. 2011. Evaluation of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter as a VOC control technology for the plastic coating sector. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 58&-59, 154&-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2011.09.009
Barona A., Elías A., Arias R., Acha E., & Cano I. 2007. Desorption and Biofiltration for the Treatment of Residual Organic Gases Evolved in Soil Decontamination Processses. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 30(11): 1499&-1505. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.200700070
Chitwood D. E., Devinny J. S., & Edward Reynolds F. 1999. Evaluation of a two-stage biofilter for treatment of POTW waste air. Environmental Progress, 18(3): 212&-221. https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.670180318
Garner L. G., & Barton T. A. 2002. Biofiltration for abatement of VOC and HAP emissions. Metal Finishing, 100(11&-12): 12&-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0026-0576(02)80931-X
Hernández-Meléndez O., Bárzana E., Arriaga S., Hernández-Luna M., & Revah S. 2008. Fungal removal of gaseous hexane in biofilters packed with poly(ethylene carbonate) pine sawdust or peat composites. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 100(5): 864&-871. https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.21825
Huang W., Bai J., Zhao S., & Lv A. 2011. Investigation of oil vapor emission and its evaluation methods. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 24(2): 178&-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2010.12.004
Jin Y., Veiga M. C., & Kennes C. 2006. Performance optimization of the fungal biodegradation of a-pinene in gas-phase biofilter. Process Biochemistry, 41(8): 1722&-1728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2006.03.020
Karre A., Jones K., Boswell J., & Paca J. 2012. Evaluation of VOC emissions control and opacity removal using a biological sequential treatment system for forest products applications. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 87(6): 797&-805. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.3779
Karre A. K., Bairu P., Jones K. D., & Paca J. 2012. Parameters affecting HS emissions removal and re-circulating water quality in a pilot-scale sequential biological treatment system at a wastewater lift station in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 47(7): 979&-989. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2012.667304
Liang C., Chen Y.-J., & Chang K.-J. 2009. Evaluation of persulfate oxidative wet scrubber for removing BTEX gases. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164(2&-3): 571&-579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.08.056
Martinez A., Rathibandla S., Jones K., & Cabezas J. 2008. Biofiltration of wastewater lift station emissions: evaluation of VOC removal in the presence of H2S. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 10(1): 81&-87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-007-0110-y
RahulMathur A. K., & Balomajumder C. 2013. Biological treatment and modeling aspect of BTEX abatement process in a biofilter. Bioresource Technology, 142, 9&-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.005
Rene E. R., Veiga M. C., & Kennes C. 2010. Biodegradation of gas-phase styrene using the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus: Impact of pollutant load and transient operation. Chemosphere, 79(2): 221&-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.01.036
Santos S., Jones K., Abdul R., Boswell J., & Paca J. 2007. Treatment of wet process hardboard plant VOC emissions by a pilot scale biological system. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 37(3): 261&-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2007.05.005
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Quality - Cities and Counties. Retrieved April 9, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/air-trends/air-quality-cities-and-counties
Van Groenestijn J. W., & Liu J. X. 2002. Removal of alpha-pinene from gases using biofilters containing fungi. Atmospheric Environment, 36(35): 5501&-5508. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00665-9
Vergara-Fernández A., Lara Molina L., Pulido N. A., & Aroca G. 2007. Effects of gas flow rate, inlet concentration and temperature on the biofiltration of toluene vapors. Journal of Environmental Management, 84(2): 115&-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.04.009
Wang G., Cheng S., Wei W., Zhou Y., Yao S., & Zhang H. 2016. Characteristics and source apportionment of VOCs in the suburban area of Beijing, China. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 7(4): 711&-724. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2016.03.006
Webster T. S., Cox H. H. J., & Deshusses M. A. 1999. Resolving operational and performance problems encountered in the use of a pilot/full-scale biotrickling filter reactor. Environmental Progress, 18(3): 162&-172. https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.670180312
Woertz J. R., & Kinney K. A. 2004. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween 20 on fungal growth and toluene degradation in a vapor-phase bioreactor. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 130(3): 292&-299. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2004)130:3(292)
Zhang Z., Wang H., Chen D., Li Q., Thai P., Gong D., Wang B. 2017. Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds and their secondary organic aerosol formation potentials from a petroleum refinery in Pearl River Delta, China. Science of The Total Environment, 584&-585, 1162&-1174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.179
Zhao L., Huang S., & Wei Z. 2014. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 16(5): 1001&-1007. https://doi.org/10.1039/C3EM00524K