Extension of an Empirical Wormhole Model for Carbonate Matrix Acidizing Through Two-Scale Continuum 3D Simulations
- Mateus Palharini Schwalbert (Petrobras and Texas A&M University) | Ding Zhu (Texas A&M University) | A. Daniel Hill (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Europec featured at 79th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, 12-15 June, Paris, France
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.2 Installation and Completion Operations, 2.6 Acidizing, 2.1.3 Completion Equipment, 2 Well completion, 5.8 Unconventional and Complex Reservoirs, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.3.4 Scale, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.5.2 Core Analysis
- wormhole model, matrix acidizing
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 166 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
The optimum design of matrix acidizing operations in carbonate reservoirs is a discussion in progress. Although there are several models available to the industry for predicting wormhole propagation, most of them are not practical enough to be used in real treatment designs, or were developed to represent core flood data and cannot be simply scaled up to represent wormhole formation in complex well geometries. This problem is addressed by Furui's wormhole propagation model, which is a modification of Buijse and Glasbergen empirical correlation including a scale up procedure to represent field carbonate acidizing operations using laboratory core flood data. It is a practical engineering tool that can be used for treatment designs in horizontal wells, including barefoot and perforation-cluster completions in fairly isotropic and homogeneous reservoirs.
In this work an analysis of Furui's model is performed, including the effect of anisotropy in the carbonate reservoir. The analysis includes both radial or elliptical wormhole propagation that forms from an openhole completion and the spherical or ellipsoidal wormhole propagation that emerges from each perforation in a perforation-cluster completion that makes use of a limited-entry technique for achieving good acid placement.
The development is made using extensive 3D numerical simulations with a two-scale continuum model and finite volumes method to represent the dissolution of the porous medium. The numerical model is tuned to represent real results through matching experimental core flood data and dissolution patterns.
Some conclusions are obtained regarding both isotropic and anisotropic formations. In isotropic formations with radial propagation of wormholes, simulations indicate that a number from four to six wormholes propagate radially in each plane. When the propagation is spherical, simulations result in a number from 16 to 24 wormholes propagating spherically from the point of acid injection.
In anisotropic formations, the radial stimulated zone might become an elliptic stimulated zone, depending on the acid injection rate and the permeability heterogeneity magnitude. The major axis of the elliptic stimulated zone coincides with the direction of higher permeability and longer permeability correlation length, and it is longer for larger acid injection rates. Analogously, the spherical wormholes propagation pattern might become an ellipsoidal stimulated zone in anisotropic formations.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||23|
Akanni, O. O., & Nasr-El-Din, H. A. (2015, March 8). The Accuracy of Carbonate Matrix-Acidizing Models in Predicting Optimum Injection and Wormhole Propagation Rates. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/172575-MS.
Akanni, O. O., & Nasr-El-Din, H. A. (2016, September 26). Modeling of Wormhole Propagation During Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Reservoirs by Organic Acids and Chelating Agents. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/181348-MS.
Buijse, M. A., & Glasbergen, G. (2005, January 1). A Semi-Empirical Model To Calculate Wormhole Growth in Carbonate Acidizing. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/96892-MS.
CFD Direct. 2016. http://cfd.direct (accessed 8 December 2016).
Daccord, G., Touboul, E., & Lenormand, R. (1989, February 1). Carbonate Acidizing: Toward a Quantitative Model of the Wormholing Phenomenon. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/16887-PA.
De Oliveira, T. J. L., Melo, A. R., Oliveira, J. A. A., and Pereira, A. Z. I. 2012. Numerical Simulation of the Acidizing Process and PVBT Extraction Methodology Including Porosity/Permeability and Mineralogy Heterogeneity. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 15–17 February. SPE-151823-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151823-MS.
Fredd, C. N., and Fogler, H. S. 1996. Alternative Stimulation Fluids and Their Impact on Carbonate Acidizing. Presented at the International Symposium on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, LA, USA, 14–15 February 1996. SPE 31074. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/31074-MS.
Fredd, C. N., Tjia, R., and Fogler, H. S. The Existance of an Optimum Damkohler Number For Matrix Stimulation of Carbonate Formations. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2–3 June 1997. SPE 38167. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38167-MS.
Frick, T. P., & Economides, M. J. (1993, February 1). Horizontal Well Damage Characterization and Removal. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/21795-PA.
Frick, T. P., & Economides, M. J. (1996, May 1). State-Of-The-Art In The Matrix Stimulation Of Horizontal Wells. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/26997-PA.
Furui, K., Zhu, D., & Hill, A. D. (2003, January 1). A Comprehensive Model of Horizontal Well Completion Performance. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/84401-MS.
Furui, K., Burton, R. C., Burkhead, D. W., Abdelmalek, N. A., Hill, A. D., Zhu, D., and Nozaki, M. 2012a. A Comprehensive Model of High-Rate Matrix-Acid Stimulation for Long Horizontal Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs: Part I—Scaling Up Core-Level Acid Wormholing to Field Treatments. SPE Journal 17 (01). SPE-134265-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134265-PA.
Furui, K., Burton, R. C., Burkhead, D. W., Abdelmalek, N. A., Hill, A. D., Zhu, D., and Nozaki, M. 2012b. A Comprehensive Model of High-Rate Matrix-Acid Stimulation for Long Horizontal Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs: Part II—Wellbore/Reservoir Coupled-Flow Modeling and Field Application. SPE Journal 17 (01). SPE-155497-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/155497-PA.
Golfier, F., Bazin, B., Zarcone, C., Lernormand, R., Lasseux, D., & Quintard, M. (2001, January 1). Acidizing Carbonate Reservoirs: Numerical Modelling of Wormhole Propagation and Comparison to Experiments. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/68922-MS.
Huang, T., Zhu, D., & Hill, A. D. (1999, January 1). Prediction of Wormhole Population Density in Carbonate Matrix Acidizing. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/54723-MS.
Kalia, N., and Balakotaiah, V. 2008. Effect of medium heterogeneities on reactive dissolution of carbonates. Chemical Engineering Science 64 (2009): 376–390. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2008.10.026.
Liu, X., & Ortoleva, P. (1996, January 1). A General-Purpose, Geochemical Reservoir Simulator. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/36700-MS.
Maheshwari, P., and Balakotaiah, V. 2013. 3-D Simulation of Carbonate Acidization with HCl: Comparison with Experiments. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 23–26 March 2013. SPE-164517-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164517-MS.
Maheshwari, P., Gharbi, O., Thirion, A., El Cheikh Ali, N. S., Peyrony, V., Aubry, E., Poitrenaud, H. M., and Benquet, J. C. 2016. Development of a Reactive Transport Simulator for Carbonates Acid Stimulation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Dubai, UAE, 26–28 September 2016. SPE-181603-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/181603-MS.
Maheshwari, P., Ratnakar, R. R., Kalia, N., and Balakotaiah, V. 2012. 3-D simulation and analysis of reactive dissolution and wormhole formation in carbonate rocks. Chemical Engineering Science 90 (2013): 258–274. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.12.032.
McDuff, D., Jackson, S., Shuchart, C., and Postl, D. 2010. Understanding Wormholes in Carbonates: Unprecedented Experimental Scale and 3D Visualization. Journal of Petroleum Technology 62 (10): 78–81.SPE-129329-JPT. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129329-JPT.
Panga, M. K. R., Ziauddin, M., and Balakotaiah, V. 2005. Two-Scale Continuum Model for Simulation of Wormholes in Carbonate Acidization. AIChE Journal 51 (12): 3231–3248. DOI: 10.1002/aic.10574.
Pichler, T., Frick, T. P., Economides, M. J., & Nittmann, J. (1992, January 1). Stochastic Modeling of Wormhole Growth in Carbonate Acidizing With Biased Randomness. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/25004-MS.
Soulaine, C., and Tchelepi, H. A. 2016. Micro-continuum Approach for Pore-Scale Simulation of Subsurface Processes. Transp. Porous Media (2016) 113: 431–456. DOI: 10.1007/s11242-016-0701-3.