Rock-Fluid Interactions in the Duvernay Formation: Measurement of Wettability and Imbibition Oil Recovery
- Momotaj Begum (University of Alberta) | Mahmood Reza Yassin (University of Alberta) | Hassan Dehghanpour (University of Alberta) | Lindsay Dunn (Athabasca Oil Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, 15-16 February, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2 Well completion, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation
- Fracturing Fluid Formulation, Soaking Process, Shale Oil Wettability, Organic Pore Network, Shale-Water Interactions
- 14 in the last 30 days
- 516 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
In this study, we evaluate the wettability of shale samples drilled in the Duvernay Formation, which is a source-rock reservoir located in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). We use reservoir oil and brine to conduct air-liquid contact angle and air-liquid spontaneous imbibition tests for wettability measurements. We characterize the shale samples by measuring pressure-decay permeability, effective porosity, initial oil and water saturations, mineralogy, total organic carbon (TOC) content, and conducting rock-eval pyrolysis tests. We also conduct Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses on the shale samples to characterize the location and size of pores. After evaluation of wettability, we conduct soaking experiments. First, we measure liquid-liquid contact angles for the droplets of the soaking fluids and reservoir oil equilibrated on surface of the rock samples. Then, we immerse the oil-saturated samples in the soaking fluids with different compositions and physical properties. The we record the oil volume produced due to spontaneous imbibition of the soaking fluids. The soaking fluids are characterized by measuring surface tension, interfacial tension (IFT), viscosity, and pH. We analyze the results of soaking tests and investigate the controlling parameters affecting oil recover factor (RF).
The results of wettability measurements demonstrate that the shale samples have stronger wetting affinity to oil compared with brine. The positive correlations of TOC content with effective porosity and pressure-decay permeability suggest that the majority of connected pores are present within the organic matter. Organic porosity may explain the strong oil-wetness of the shale samples. The SEM/EDS analyses also show the abundance of organic nanopores within organic matter. The results of liquid-liquid contact angle tests show that a reduction in IFT of the soaking fluid leads to an increase in wetting affinity of rock to soaking fluid. The results also show that oil RF is higher for soaking fluids with lower IFT, which can be explained by wettability alteration. The shale samples have higher wetting affinity to soaking fluids with lower IFT, leading to an increase in the driving capillary pressure and, consequently to higher oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition. In addition, comparing the results of air-brine imbibition with soaking tests suggests that adding surfactant to the soaking fluid may alter the wettability of organic pores towards more water-wetness, leading to the displacement of oil from hydrophobic organic pores.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||27|
Bertoncello, A., Wallace, J., Blyton, C., Honarpour, M.M., Kabir, S., (2014). Imbibition and water blockage in unconventional reservoirs: well-management implications during flowback and early production. Soc. Petrol. Eng. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167698-PA.
Bobek, J. E., Mattax, C. C., & Denekas, M. O. (1958). Reservoir Rock Wettability - Its Significance and Evaluation. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Vol.213, 155-160. doi:https://www.onepetro.org/general/SPE-895-G
Brown, R. S., & Fatt, I. (1956). Measurements of Fractional Wettability of Oil Fields' Rocks By The Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Method. SPE-743-G. Los Angeles, California: Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/743-G
Chen, H., Lucas, L., Nogaret, L., Yang, H., & Kenyon, D. (2001). Laboratory Monitoring of Surfactant Imbibition with Computerized Tomography. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 4(01), 16-25. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/69197-PA
Dehghanpour, H., Zubair, H. A., Chhabra, A., & Ullah, A. (2012). Liquid Intake of Organic Shales. Energy Fuels, 26 (9), 5750-5758. doi:10.1021/ef3009794
Donaldson, E. C., Thomas, R. D., & Lorenz, P. B. (1969). Wettability Determination and Its Effect on Recovery Efficiency. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, 13-20. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2338-PA
Dunn, L. A., & Humenjuk, J. (2014). The Duvernay Formation: Integrating Sedimentology, Sequence Stratigraphy and Geophysics to Identify Sweet Spots in a Liquids-Rich Shale Play, Kaybob Alberta. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. Denver, Colorado, USA : Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2014-1922713
Fothergill, P., Boskovic, D., Schoellkopf, N., Murphy, P., & Mukati, M. (2014). Regional Modelling of the Late Devonian Duvernay Formation, Western Alberta, Canada. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. Denver, Colorado, USA : Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2014-1923935
Gonzalez, J., Lewis, R., Hemingway, J., Grau, J., Rylander, E., Pirie, I., (2013). Determination of formation organic carbon content using a new neutron-induced gamma ray spectroscopy service that directly measures carbon. Soc. Petrol. Eng. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/URTEC2013-112.
Handwerger, D. A., Willberg, D. M., Pagels, M., Rowland, B., & Keller, J. (2012). Reconciling Retort versus Dean Stark Measurements on Tight Shales. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/159976-MS
Hensen, E.J.M., Smit, B., (2002). Why clays swell. Journal of Physical Chemistry. B 106 (49), 12664-12667. https://www.aer.ca. http://ags.aer.ca/publications/chapter-31-petroleum-generation-and-migration.htm
Jones, M., Stratton, J., Newton, R., Oekerman, M., Xu, L., & Martin, K. (2016). Case Study: Successful Applications of Weak Emulsifying Surfactants in the Wolfcamp Formation of Reagan County, TX. SPE Liquids-Rich Basins Conference. Midland, Texas, USA : Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/181771-MS
Lan, Q., Yassin, M.R., Habibi, A., Dehghanpour, H., Wood, J., (2015). Relative permeability of unconventional rocks with dual-wettability pore-network. Soc. Petrol. Eng. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/178549-MS.
Mitchell, A.G., Hazell, L.B., Webb, K.J., (1990). Wettability determination: pore surface analysis. Soc. Petrol. Eng. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20505-MS.
Morrow, N. R. (1990). Wettability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 42 (12), 1476-1484. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21621-PA
Neog, A., & Schechter, D. S. (2016). Investigation of Surfactant Induced Wettability Alteration in Wolfcamp Shale for Hydraulic Fracturing and EOR Applications. SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference. Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA: Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/179600-MS
Qi, Z., Han, M., Fuseni, A., Alsofi, A., Zhang, F., Peng, Y., & Cai, H. (2016). Laboratory Study on Surfactant Induced Spontaneous Imbibition for Carbonate Reservoir. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/182322-MS
Raquejo, A. G., Gray, N. R., & Freund, H. (1992). Maturation of Petroleum Source Rocks. 1. Changes in Kerogen Structure and Composition Associated with Hydrocarbon Generation. Energy & Fuels, 6, 203-214. doi:http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ef00032a015
Standnes, D. C., & Austad, T. (2000). Wettability alteration in chalk: 1. Preparation of core material and oil properties. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 28(3), 111-121. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00083-8
Sulucarnain, I.D., Sondergeld, C.H., Rai, C.S., (2012). An NMR study of shale wettability and effective surface relaxivity. Soc. Petrol. Eng. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/162236-MS.
Tissot, B. P., & Welte, D. H. (1984). Petroleum Formation and Occurrence. New York, Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. Retrieved from https://raregeologybooks.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/b-p-tissot-and-d-h-welte-petroleum-formation-and-occurence.pdf
Wang, D., Butler, R., Liu, H., & Ahmed, S. (2011). Wettability Survey in Bakken Shale with Surfactant Formulation Imbibition. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145510-MS
Yassin, M. R., Begum, M., & Dehghanpour, H. (2016b). Organic shale wettability and its relationship to other petrophysical properties: A Duvernay case study, International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 169, Pages 74-91, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2016.11.015.
Yassin, M. R., Dehghanpour, H., Wood, J., & Lan, Q. (2016c). A Theory for Relative Permeability of Unconventional Rocks with Dual-Wettability Pore Network. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/178549-PA
Yue, Z., Fu, Q., Lang, N., & Fan, C. (2014). Liquid Scale Inhibitors for Metallic-Crosslinked Gel Fracturing Systems. SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition. Aberdeen, Scotland: Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/169806-MS