Improved Oil Recovery in Tight Oil Formations: Results of Water Injection Operations and Gas Injection Sensitivities in the Bakken Formation of Southeast Saskatchewan
- S. M. Ghaderi (University of Calgary) | C. R. Clarkson (University of Calgary) | A. Ghanizadeh (University of Calgary) | K. Barry (Crescent Point Energy Corp.) | R. Fiorentino (Crescent Point Energy Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, 15-16 February, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.7 Reserves Evaluation, 2 Well completion, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods
- Bakken, Water Injection, Tight Oil Formations, Miscible and Immiscible EOR, Gas Injection
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 614 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Conventional oil production has occurred from the Bakken Formation in Saskatchewan since the mid-1950s. However, with successful implementation of multi-fractured horizontal well (MFHW) technology, the low-permeability (unconventional) Bakken has experienced ever increasing E&P activity on both sides of the US/Canada border. Prior to 2005, the Bakken in Saskatchewan had less than 100 active producers in the region but has increased to more than 2,500 producing wells since then (Sekar, 2015).
Although improvement in hydraulic fracture properties and infill drilling remain the focus of recovery enhancement from the Bakken, low oil recoveries and steep initial oil decline rates are experienced using primary recovery operations, even after application of MFHW technology. Therefore, many pilots have been executed to determine the viability of waterflooding for maintaining oil rates and improving recoveries through reservoir pressure maintenance and sweep efficiency enhancement.
This paper presents the performance results from one of the waterflood pilots in the Viewfield Bakken. MFHWs were used as both injectors and producers for this pilot. Five years of production/injection volumes for these wells, along with pressure data, were matched using a black-oil simulator. The calibrated model was then used to predict the long-term performance of the pilot. Finally, this model was used for further investigation of parameters affecting the performance of the waterflood operation along with assessment of EOR (gas injection) schemes applicable to the Bakken Formation.
Two important conclusions can be derived from this study: 1) waterflooding can be effective in tight oil reservoirs using MFHWs as injectors and producers and, 2) careful characterization of vertical changes in reservoir quality using laboratory-based measurements are important for improving the quality of the history match and resulting forecast scenarios. For 2), permeability heterogeneity was quantified using profile permeability measurements corrected to ‘in-situ’ stress conditions.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Cronkwright, D. J., Ghanizadeh A., Aquino, S., Vahedian, A., Clarkson, C. R., Pedersen P. K., & Spencer R. J., (2016). Controls on Hydrocarbon Accumulation and Production in the Bakken Formation: Integrating High Resolution Core Analysis with the Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Attributes. AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Di J., & Jensen, J. L., (2015). A Closer Look at Pore Throat Size Estimators for Tight Gas Formations, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 27, 1252-1260. doi: 10.1016/j.jngse.2015.09.072
Ghanizadeh, A., Clarkson, C. R., Aquino, S., Ardakani. O. H., & Sanei H., (2015). Petrophysical and Geomechanical Characteristics of Canadian Tight Oil and Liquid-Rich Gas Reservoirs: I. Pore Network and Permeability Characterization. Fuel, 153, 664-681. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.03.020
Government of Saskatchewan, (2015). Energy Briefing Note: The Ultimate Potential for Unconventional Petroleum from the Bakken Formation of Saskatchewan. https://www.neb-one.gc.ca/nrg/sttstc/crdlndptrlmprdct/rprt/2015bkkn/index-eng.html
Kreis, L. K., Costa, A. L., & Osadetz, K. G., (2006). Hydrocarbon Potential of Bakken and Torquay Formations, Southeastern Saskatchewan; in Gilboy, C.F. and Whittaker, S.G. (eds.), Saskatchewan and Northern Plains Oil & Gas Symposium, Saskatchewan Geological Society Special Publication 19: 118-137.
Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC), (2014). Effective EOR Technologies in Tight Bakken Oil Reservoirs. http://www.src.sk.ca/resource%20files/bakken%20oil%20reservoirs.pdf
Todd, H. B., & Evans, J. G., (2016). Improved Oil Recovery IOR Pilot Projects in the Bakken Formation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi: 10.2118/180270-MS