Applying Subsurface DNA Sequencing in Wolfcamp Shales, Midland Basin
- Peter Lascelles (EP Energy) | Jichun Wan (EP Energy) | Lauren Robinson (EP Energy) | Randy Allmon (EP Energy) | Grant Evans (EP Energy) | Luke Ursell (Biota Technology) | Nicole M. Scott (Biota Technology) | John Chase (Biota Technology) | Jelena Jablanovic (Biota Technology) | Moji Karimi (Biota Technology) | Vik Rao (Biota Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 24–26 January, The Woodlands, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.1 Completion Selection and Design, 2 Well completion, 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.6.5 Tracers, 2.3 Completion Monitoring Systems/Intelligent Wells, 3 Production and Well Operations, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 2.1 Completion Selection and Design, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.3 Well & Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring
- SRV, Frac Height, DNA Sequencing, Well Spacing, Subsurface DNA
- 117 in the last 30 days
- 500 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
DNA diagnostics is a new reservoir characterization tool with potential to maximize reservoir production in tight rock formations. DNA extracted from rock layers provides high resolution fingerprints that define a "DNA stratigraphy" for organic intervals like the Wolfcamp. DNA sequences originate from microbes feeding on organic matter or minerals within the formation. A DNA stratigraphic profile, or type section, was assembled from a vertical pilot well's cuttings and core. The DNA signature from produced oil from offset laterals was subsequently compared against the DNA type section to provide estimated effective drainage height. Cuttings from a lateral well were compared with DNA from its produced oil to construct a production profile comparable to a traditional production log. In addition, when oil samples are collected over time, the method provides insight on interference, completion effectiveness, and SRV (Stimulated Reservoir Volume) changes with time.
An optimized development plan in unconventional reservoirs requires operators to understand parameters such as effective drainage height, hydraulic fracture half-length and individual stage contributions resulting from their completions. Wolfcamp reservoirs consist of highly laminated mudrocks interbedded with limestones that have quite different mechanical properties. These contrasting lithologies make it difficult to estimate resultant completion geometries, SRV, and well-to- well interactions. Also, using costly production logs, individual stage contributions are difficult to obtain in lower pressure reservoirs like the Wolfcamp. However, these reservoir performance parameters are required to set benchmarks and continuously uplift the EUR by taking advantage of insightful diagnostics.
Production logs, micro-seismic, chemical or radioactive tracers are all useful in understanding the subsurface, but can be expensive and can pose operational challenges. Subsurface DNA sequencing is a relatively low cost new data source that can be used to gain subsurface insights in complicated reservoirs. DNA stratigraphy can help assess critical geometric parameters resulting from stimulation by employing non-invasive sampling that enables lifetime well monitoring to track the flow of oil and provide engineers the basis to optimize completions and development plans.
An 8 well "subsurface" lab was selected for the experiment. The project included one vertical pilot hole with cuttings, and 8 horizontal wells landed in two Wolfcamp pay zones (one of the laterals was extended from the same vertical pilot). Three horizontals had been on production for 11 months before the pilot well and 6 additional laterals were drilled. The pilot well and its sidetracked lateral had cuttings extracted for DNA sequencing. DNA signatures from the pilot well and lateral well were compiled to produce vertical and lateral DNA stratigraphic profiles. The DNA stratigraphic profiles were then compared to DNA from oil produced in the 7 offset laterals. DNA profiles were also compared to standard geologic parameters using pilot well e-logs, particularly mechanical stratigraphy. Lateral wells were sampled at various times after initial production to assess changes with time. Blind tests were designed to check the method as a reasonable estimator for effective drainage height and communication.
DNA stratigraphy provides a more informed view of well spacing, completion design and well performance to help increase efficiency and asset value.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Bastin, E, S., Greer, F. E., Merritt, C. A.. 1926. The Presence of Sulphate Reducing Bacteria in Oil Field Waters. Science (New York, NY) 63 (1618): 21-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.63.1618.21.
Bharali, S. G., Sharma, A., and Sehra, S. S. M. 2014. Effect of Well Down Spacing on EUR for Shale Oil Formations. Presented at the SPE Western North American and Rocky Mountain Joint Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 17-18 April. SPE-169514. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169514-MS.
Blakey, R.. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17150-MS.
Cipolla, C. L., Maxwell, S. C., and Mack, M. G. 2012. Engineering Guide to the Application of Microseismic Interpretations. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6-8 February. SPE-152165-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152165-MS.
Cipolla, C. L., Warpinski, N. R., Mayerhofer, M. J.. 2008. The Relationship Between Fracture Complexity, Reservoir Properties, and Fracture Treatment Design. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 21-24 September. SPE- 115769-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115769-MS.
Daly, R. A., Borton, M. A., Wilkins, M. J.. 2016. Microbial Metabolisms in a 2.5-km-deep Ecosystem Created by Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales. Nature Microbiology 1: 16146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.146.
Daniels, J. L., Waters, G. A., Le Calvez, J. H.. 2007. Contacting More of the Barnett Shale Through an Integration of Real-Time Microseismic Monitoring, Petrophysics, and Hydraulic Fracture Design. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11-14 November. SPE-110562-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110562-MS.
Dutton, S. P. 2004. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities. Final report, Contract No. DE-FC26-02NT15131, US DOE, Austin, Texas (March 2004).
Fisher, M. K. and Warpinski, N. R. 2012. Hydraulic-Fracture-Height Growth: Real Data. SPE Prod & Oper 27(01): 8-19. SPE-145949-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145949-PA.
Fisher, M. K., Heinze, J. R., Harris, C. D.. 2004. Optimizing Horizontal Completion Techniques in the Barnett Shale Using Microseismic Fracture Mapping. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 26-29 September. SPE-90051- MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90051-MS.
Fisher, M. K., Wright, C. A., Davidson, B. M.. 2002. Integrating Fracture Mapping Technologies to Optimize Stimulations in the Barnett Shale. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September-2 October. SPE- 77441-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77441-MS.
Gruley, B. and Carroll, J. 2016. How Oil's Most Boring CEO Found Himself Atop 10 Billion Barrels. Bloomberg, 11 May 2016, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-11/how-oil-s-most-boring-ceo-found-himself-atop-10-billion-barrels
Hayatdavoudi, A., Chegenizadeh, N., Chistoserdov, A.. 2013. Application of New Fingerprinting Bacteria DNA in Crude Oil for Reservoir Characterization-Part II. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 30 September-2 October. SPE-166087-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166087-MS.
Illumina. 2016. High-Speed Multiplexed Microbial Sequencing on the MiSeq® System. Applications note, product literature (www.illumina.com/literature.html).
Kabir, S., Rasdi, F., and Igboalisi, B. 2011. Analyzing Production Data From Tight Oil Wells. J Can Pet Technol 50(05): 48-58. SPE-137414-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137414-PA.
King, G. E. 2010. Thirty Years of Gas Shale Fracturing: What Have We Learned? Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. SPE- 133456-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133456-MS.
King, G. E., Haile, L., Shuss, J. A.. 2008. Increasing Fracture Path Complexity and Controlling Downward Fracture Growth in the Barnett Shale. Presented at the SPE Shale Gas Production Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, 16-18 November. SPE-119896-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119896-MS.
Maxwell, S. C. and Cipolla, C. L. 2011. What Does Microseismicity Tell Us About Hydraulic Fracturing? Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October-2 November. SPE-146932-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146932-MS.
Mayerhofer, M. J., Lolon, E., Warpinski, N. R.. 2010. What is Stimulated Rock Volume? SPE Prod & Oper 25(01): 89-98. SPE-119890-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119890-PA.
Miller, C. K., Waters, G. A., and Rylander, E. I. 2011. Evaluation of Production Log Data from Horizontal Wells Drilled in Organic Shales. Presented at the SPE North American Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Woodlands, Texas, 14-16 June. SPE-144326- MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144326-MS.
Neuhaus, C. W., and Miskimins, J. L. 2012. Analysis of Surface and Downhole Microseismic Monitoring Coupled with Hydraulic Fracture Modeling in the Woodford Shale. Presented at the SPE Europe/EAGE Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4-7 June. SPE-154804-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154804-MS.
Paryani, M., Poludasu, S., Sia, D.. 2016. Estimation of Optimal Frac Design Parameters for Asymmetric Hydraulic Fractures as a Result of Interacting Hydraulic and Natural Fractures - Application to the Eagle Ford. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, 23-26 May. SPE-180460-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/180460-MS.
Shelley, R. F., Lolon, E., Dzubin, B.. 2010. Quantifying the Effects of Well Type and Hydraulic Fracture Selection on Recovery for Various Reservoir Permeabilities Using a Numerical Reservoir Simulator. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. SPE-133985-MS.
Warpinski, N. R. 2009. Integrating Microseismic Monitoring with Well Completions, Reservoir Behavior, and Rock Mechanics. Presented at the SPE Tight Gas Completions Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 15-17 June. SPE-125239-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125239-MS.
Warpinski, N. R., Mayerhofer, M. J., Bridges, A. C.. 2012. Hydraulic Fracture Geomechanics and Microseismic Source Mechanisms. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8-10 October. SPE-158935-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/158935-MS.
Weijers, L., Cipolla, C. L., Mayerhofer, M. J.. 2005. Developing Calibrated Fracture Growth Models for Various Formations and Regions Across the United States. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 9-12 October. SPE-96080-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96080-MS.