Produced Water Management for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery
- Maaz Ali (Texas A&M University) | Sudiptya Banerjee (Texas A&M University) | Berna Hascakir (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, 6-8 December, Kuwait City, Kuwait
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2016. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.2 Well Operations and Optimization, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 3.2.6 Produced Water Management, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods
- Produced Water Management, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Thermal EOR, Cations and Anions, TDS
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 246 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Water is one of the cheapest and the most abundant injection fluid for oil extraction. Hence, as the hydrocarbon production increases, the amount of water injected escalates which brings the necessity of the proper management and treatment of produced water. The produced water quality can vary greatly depending on water injection processes employed. Thus, we aim to develop a thorough understanding of the expected quality of produced water originating from different thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes to manage oilfield waters. In this study, produced water from steam flooding (SF), steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), solvent-SAGD (S-SAGD), hot water injection (HWI), and in-situ combustion (ISC) processes were characterized. The anions and cations were analyzed by an ion chromatography. Total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, pH, total organic content, and average particle sizes of colloids were measured. The stability of colloids was determined by Zeta potential. All analyses were performed on the produced water samples collected at different three stages of the processes; at the initial, intermediate, and final stage of each process. As expected, conductivity strongly correlated with the concentration of the ions present in produced water samples. Sulfate and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations showed a linear relation. During steam and hot water based injection processes, which were conducted with quartz and kaolinite mixtures, clay-water interaction was found significant, and this interaction increases with injected fluid temperature. Based on zeta potential measurements, the produced water from steam based EOR processes exhibited higher stability than ISC. In other words, the colloids in produced water originated from ISC was more prompt to settlement which makes produced water from ISC good candidate for chemical coagulation. The steam based processes indicated lower TDS value in produced water than ISC, however, when the produced volumes were considered, ISC had advantages due to significantly low volumes of produced waters. Our results indicate that the proper selection of the bitumen extraction method impacts the bitumen-water interaction and produced water management becomes feasible.
|File Size||784 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Abou-Sayed, A. S., Zaki, K. S., Wang, G.etal. 2007. Produced Water Management Strategy and Water Injection Best Practices: Design, Performance, and Monitoring. SPE Prod & Oper 22 (1): 59-68. SPE-108238-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/108238-pa.
Ali, M., Hascakir, B., Water-Rock Interaction for Eagle Ford, Marcellus, Green River, and Barnett Shale Samples and Implications for Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Engineering, SPE Journal, in print, SPE-177304-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/177304-pa
Ali, M., Hascakir, B., A Critical Review of Emerging Challenges for the Oil Field Waters in United States, SPE E&P Health, Safety, Security, and Environmental Conference-Americas, 16-18 March 2015, Denver, Colorado, USA, SPE 173529-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173529-ms
Arrhenius, S., Development of the theory of electrolytic dissociation, Noberl Lecture, December 11, 1903. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1903/arrhenius-lecture.pdf
Bowman, R. W., Gramms, L. C., Craycraft, R. R. 1997. Water Softening of High TDS Produced Water. Proc., International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Bakersfield, California. Alternate Water Softening of High TDS Produced Water. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37528-ms.
Fennell, J., Bentley, L. R., 1998. Distribution of sulfate and organic carbon in a prairie till setting: Natural versus industrial sources, Water Resources Research, Vol. 34, No. 7, Pages 1781-1794. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/98wr00827/pdf
Fujii, R., Ranalli, A. J., Aiken, G. R., Bergamaschi, B. A., 1998. Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations and Compositions, and Trihalomethane Formation Potentials in Waters from Agricultural Peat Soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: Implications for Drinking-Water Quality. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 98–4147. http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri984147/wrir984147.pdf
Fukuyama, H., Nakamura, T. T., Ikeda, A. 2010. Partial Upgrading of Bitumen at SAGD Wellsite. Proc., Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta. Alternate Partial Upgrading of Bitumen at SAGD Wellsite. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/136512-ms.
Hamm, R. A., Ong, T. S. 1995. Enhanced Steam-assisted Gravity Drainage: A New Horizontal Well Recovery Process For Peace River, Canada. J Can Petrol Technol 34 (4). PETSOC-95-04-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95-04-03.
Kar, T., Mukhametshina, A., Unal, Y., Hascakir, B. (2015). The Effect of Clay Type on Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Performance. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. SPE-173795-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173795-pa.
Lee, J. M., Frankiewicz, T. C. 2005. Treatment of Produced Water with an Ultrafiltration (UF) Membrane-A Field Trial. Proc., SPE ATCE, Dallas, Texas. Alternate Treatment of Produced Water with an Ultrafiltration (UF) Membrane-A Field Trial. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95735-ms.
Morrow, A. W., Mukhametshina, A., Aleksandrov, D., Hascakir, B. 2014. Environmental Impact of Bitumen Extraction with Thermal Recovery. Proc., SPE Heavy Oil Conference - Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Alternate Environmental Impact of Bitumen Extraction with Thermal Recovery. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170066-ms.
Mukhametshina, A., Hascakir, B. 2014. Bitumen Extraction by Expanding Solvent-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (ES-SAGD) with Asphaltene Solvents and Non-Solvents. Proc., SPE Heavy Oil Conference - Canada, Calgary, Alberta. Alternate Bitumen Extraction by Expanding Solvent-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (ES-SAGD) with Asphaltene Solvents and Non-Solvents. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170013-ms.
Mukhametshina, A., Morrow, A. W., Aleksandrov, D.etal. 2014. Evaluation of Four Thermal Recovery Methods for Bitumen Extraction. Proc., SPE Western North American and Rocky Mountain Joint Meeting, Denver, Colorado. Alternate Evaluation of Four Thermal Recovery Methods for Bitumen Extraction. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169543-ms.
Mukhametshina, A., Kar, T., Hascakir, B. (2016). Asphaltene Precipitation During Bitumen Extraction With Expanding-Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: Effects on Pore-Scale Displacement. SPE Journal, 21 (02), 380-392. SPE-170013-PA. 10.2118/170013-PA.
Stephenson, M. T. 1992. Components of Produced Water: A Compilation of Industry Studies. JPT 44 (5): 548-603. SPE-23313-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23313-pa.
U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2012. "Guidelines for Water Reuse." EPA. Washington, DC, USA. http://nepis.epa.gov/Adobe/PDF/P100FS7K.pdf, Accessed December 3, 201
van den Broek, W. M. G. T., Plat, R., van der Zande, M. J. 1998. Comparison of Plate Separator, Centrifuge and Hydrocyclone. Proc., SPE International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Beijing, China. Alternate Comparison of Plate Separator, Centrifuge and Hydrocyclone. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/48870-ms.
Veil, J., Clark, C. 2011. Produced Water Volume Estimates and Management Practices. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (3): 234-239. SPE-125999-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125999-pa.
Walsh, J. M., Frankiewicz, T. C. 2010. Treating Produced Water on Deepwater Platforms: Developing Effective Practices Based Upon Lessons Learned. Proc., SPE ATCE, Florence, Italy. Alternate Treating Produced Water on Deepwater Platforms: Developing Effective Practices Based Upon Lessons Learned. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134505-ms.