Case Study: A New Salt-Tolerant Friction Reducer System Enables 100% Re-use of Produced Water in the Marcellus Shale
- Liang Xu (Multi-Chem—A Halliburton Service) | Paul Lord (Multi-Chem—A Halliburton Service) | Howard Riley (Multi-Chem—A Halliburton Service) | Justin Koons (Multi-Chem—A Halliburton Service) | Todd Wauters (Multi-Chem—A Halliburton Service) | Sam Weiman (EQT)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, 13-15 September, Canton, Ohio, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2016. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2 Well completion, 5.8 Unconventional and Complex Reservoirs, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 3 Production and Well Operations
- slickwater, pumping rate, frac, pipe friction, FR
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- 174 since 2007
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Friction reducers (FRs) are an important component for slickwater hydraulic fracturing applications. To continue to effectively treat multiple clusters in longer laterals, even for stages out near the toe area, a robust FR system is typically required to overcome pipe friction. Additionally, it is imperative to be able to use one single FR system throughout the entire treatment that can tolerate various water sources of varying salinity up to 300,000 ppm. This paper discusses the field trials of a new salt-tolerant FR system in the Marcellus shale.
A three-well trial program was initiated in the Marcellus. Various water sources with varying salinities were used with up to 100% re-use of produced water. The operator had not been able to keep the surface treating pressure between 8,000 and 8,500 psi using a standard anionic FR, which typically resulted in a lower pumping rate of less than 100 bbl/min; the first few stages using the standard FR in these wells indicated this was the case. After switching to the new FR, however, the pumping pressure immediately dropped to below 8,500 psi and the pumping rates were increased and maintained at 100 bbl/min.
This new salt-tolerant FR system consists of a water-in-oil cationic polymer and an inverter. Unlike other FRs, the distinctive advantage of the new FR is that the ratio between polymer and inverter can be readily adjusted on the fly to achieve maximum friction reduction. During the pumping operations, it was demonstrated that the inverter was sufficiently quick to invert and release the polymer from oil to water, and the cationic polymer was extremely efficient at reducing additional pipe friction, even with severely impaired water. Additionally, the use of a single FR reduces inventory stock and simplifies on location quality assurance of material usage.
|File Size||4 MB||Number of Pages||8|
DeMong, K., Sherman, D., and Affleck, B. 2010. The Tradeoff Between Surfactant Costs and Water Heating to Enhance Friction Reducer Performance. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources & International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19–21 October. SPE-138027-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/138027-MS.
Rodvelt, G., Yuyi, S., and VanGilder, C. 2015. Use of a Salt-Tolerant Friction Reducer Improves Production in Utica Completions. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, 13–15 October. SPE-177296-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/177296-MS.