In-Situ Wettability Evaluation of Dynamic Water Flooding of Carbonate Rocks Based on NMR-T2 Distribution
- Andrea Valori (Schlumberger) | Farhan Ali (Schlumberger) | Wael Abdallah (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference, 6-9 March, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics
- Wettability, NMR, Carbonate, Low Salinity, Dynamic Water
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 189 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Recovery mechanism due to brine injection (Dynamic Water, Low Salinity, etc.) in carbonate remains a point of discussion and widely open for research. As wettability alteration is heavily suggested as the main driver for recovery, this study focuses on the in-situ evaluation of wettability alteration due to multiple successive dynamic water flooding of carbonate cores plugs.
Five different core flooding with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) T2 monitoring were performed on three different carbonate core plugs. These plugs were fully characterized in terms of petrophysical parameters and petrography. NMR T2 measurements were performed throughout the core flooding experiment including the heat up, brine injection, soaking and cooling down.
Initial results on two samples that are of similar T2 distribution showed relatively different irreducible water saturation (10.7 and 14.9 %) after centrifugation and an NMR T2 inverted wettability after ageing of (-0.15 and -0.04). in the first case, the core was flooded with Gulf sea water. NMR showed clear trend towards increasing water wetness as a result of subjecting the cores with soaking periods, this accompanied with a clear additional recovery following the soaking. In the second case, the core was flooded with Gulf sea water followed by 10 times diluted sea water. Despite a high similarity with the previous core plug, recovery with sea water flooding alone resulted in 57% recovery without further recovery when the other brines were injected. In this case, where most of the effects seems to be happening during the first flooding, NMR, consistently with the production data, did not detect any clear wettability change during the soaking periods.
The results clearly indicate, for the first time, an in-situ wettability alteration due to Dynamic Water injection as demonstrated by NMR T2 distribution analysis.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||23|
Abdallah, W., Gmira, A. 2014. Wettability Assessment and Surface Compositional Analysis of Aged Calcite Treated with Dynamic Water. Energy Fuels, 28, 1642-1663. dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef401908w
Abdallah, W., Stukan, M. 2012. Interfacial Tension (IFT) and Surface Alteration Interplay. Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, 11-14 November, Abu Dhabi, UAE, SPE-161279-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/161279-MS
Alshakha, M. J., Kovscek, A. R. 2015. An Experimental study of the impact of injection water composition on oil recovery from carbonate cores. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 28-30 September, Houston, Texas, USA, SPE 175147. http://eureka.slb.com:2069/10.2118/175147-MS
Alshakha, M. J., Kovscek, A. R. 2016. Modeling the role of wettability alteration with brine composition and increased oil recovery from carbonate cores. SPE Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, SPE 182789. http://eureka.slb.com:2069/10.2118/182789-MS
Carr, H. Y., Purcell, E. M., 1954. Effects of Diffusion on Free Precession in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments, Phys. Rev. 94(3), 630. https://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.94.630
Fleury, H., Deflandre, F., 2003. Quantitative evaluation of porous media wettability using NMR relaxometry, Magn. Reson. Imaging. 21, 385–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0730-725X(03)00145-0
Freedman, R., Heaton, N., Flaum, H., Hirasaki, G. J., Flaum, C., Hurlimann, M., 2002. Wettability, Saturation, and Viscosity Using the Magnetic Resonance Fluid Characterization Method and New Diffusion-Editing Pulse Sequences, Proc. SPE Annu. Tech. Conf. Exhib., 29 Sept. – 2 October, SPE-77397-MS. doi:10.2118/77397-MS.
Gonzalez, V., Jones, M., Taylor, S. E. 2016. Spin-Spin Relaxation Time Investigation of Oil/Brine/Sand Systems. Kinetics, Effects of Salinity, and Implications for Wettability and Bitumen Recovery. Energy Fuels, 30, 844-853. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b02352
Howard, J. J., 1998, Quantitative estimates of porous media wettability from proton NMR measurements. Magn. Reson. Imaging, 16, 529–533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0730-725X(98)00060-5
Jabbar, M. Y., Al-Hashim, H. S., Abdallah, W. 2013. Effect of Brine Composition on wettability alteration of carbonate rocks in the presence of polar compunds. Saudi Arabia Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Khobar, Saudi Arabia 19-22 May, SPE 168067. doi:10.2118/168067-MS
ions on the zeta potential of calcite and dolomite particles aged with stearic acid. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 482, 290–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2015.05.043
Liu, X., Yan, W., Stenby, E. H., Thormann, E. 2016. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces: On the Alternation of Surface and Molecular Forces by High- and Low-Salinity Aqueous Salt Solutions. Energy Fuels, 30, 3986-3993. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00569
Looyestijn, W., Hofman, J. 2005. Wettability Index Determination by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Proc. SPE Middle East Oil Gas Show Conf. 12-15 March, Kingdom of Bahrain, SPE-93624-MS. doi:10.2118/93624-MS.
Looyestijn, W., Hofman, J. 2006. Wettability-Index Determination by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, SPE Reserv. Eval. Eng. 9, 146-153, SPE-93624-PA. doi:10.2118/93624-PA
Meiboom, S., Gill, D., 1958. Modified Spin-Echo Method for Measuring Nuclear Relaxation Times, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 29, 688–691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1716296
Pedersen, N. R., Hassenkam, T., Ceccato, M., Dalby, K. N., Mogensen, K., Stipp. S. L. S. 2016. Low Salinity Effect at Pore Scale: Probing Wettability Changes in Middle East Limestone. Energy Fuels, 30, 3768-377. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b02562
Qiao, C., Johns, R., Li, L. 2016. Modleing Low-Salinity Waterflooding in Chalk and Limestone Reservoirs. Energy Fuels, 30, 884-895. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b02456
Shi, L., Olsson, M. H. M., Hassenkam, T., Stipp, S. L. S. 2016. A pH-Resolved View of the Low Salinity Effect in Sandstone Reservoirs. Energy Fuels, 30, 5346-5354. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00338
Sohal, M. A., Thyne, G., Sofaard, E. G. 2016. Review of Recovery Mechanisms of Ionically Modified Waterflood in Carbonate Reservoirs. Energy Fuels, 30, 1904-1914. doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b02749
Torrijos, I. D. P., Puntervold, T., Strand, S., Austad, T., Abdullah, H. I., Olsen, K. 2016. Experimental Study of the Response Time of the Low-Salinity Enhanced Oil Recovery Effect during Secondary and Tertiary LowSalinity Waterflooding. Energy Fuel, 30, 4733-4739. DOI:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00641
Yutkin, M. P., Lee, J. Y., Mishra, H., Radke, C. J., Patzek, T. W. 2016. Bulk and surface Aqueous Speciation of Calcite: Implications for Los-Salinity Waterflooding of Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Annual Technical Symppsium and Exhibition, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, SPE 182829. doi:10.2118/182829-MS
Yang, J., Dong, Z., Dong, M., Yang, Z., Lin, M., Zhang, J., Chen, C. 2016. Wettability Alteration during Low-Salinity Waterflooding and the Relevance of Divalent Ions in This Process. Energy Fuels, 30, 72-79. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01847