The Impact of CT–Measured and Stress–Dependent Nonuniform Fracture Apertures on Production Performance of Microseismic–Constrained Complex Fracture Networks
- Jianlei Sun (Texas A&M University) | David Schechter (Texas A&M University) | Shuhua Lin (University of Louisiana at Lafayette) | Tianyu Liu (PetroChina) | Baoquan Zeng (PetroChina) | Jianqiang Sun (Sinopec)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Asia Pacific Hydraulic Fracturing Conference, 24-26 August, Beijing, China
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2016. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 2 Well completion, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics
- Averaging Techniques, Nonuniform Fracture Aperture, Hydraulic Fracturing, Production Performance, Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 206 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Non-uniform fracture aperture not only might affect initial reservoir fluids in place, but also production behavior. In addition, previous lab experiment has already demonstrated the importance of nonuniform aperture on permeability and residual oil distribution. This study investigates the impact of aperture averaging techniques on production performance of complex fracture networks in unconventional liquid reservoirs through fracture generation, unstructured gridding and reservoir simulation of hydraulically fractured horizontal wells.
First, complex fracture networks are generated from microseismic-constrained stochastic algorithms. We reduce uncertainties of natural fracture length, center, and strike distributions by incorporating outcrop analysis and microseismic event locations. Hydraulic fractures are generated by randomly connecting natural fractures and by honoring material balance equations. Then, stress-dependent nonuniform fracture aperture distributions were taken from previously CT-scanning experiment. Moreover, in order to evaluate production performance, nonuniform apertures are sampled from the lab-measured lognormal distributions and then populated along complex fracture networks. Nonuniform aperture is explicitly gridded up and discretized using unstructured grids for reservoir simulations. Finally, numerous aperture-averaging techniques are investigated considering whether or not to honor input fracture conductivity distributions.
Numerical simulations show that the same aperture distribution yields similar cumulative oil curves. With the increase of overburden stresses, the lab measured lognormal aperture peaks shift to the left. Correspondingly, it is observed decreased cumulative oil production. In addition, if fracture conductivity remains the same, the cubic law–based averaging approach yields the best production performance. If the fracture conductivity is not kept the same, the arithmetic averaging method provides us with the best production performance, which is followed by the base, geometric and harmonic cases.
This paper demonstrated how to simulate production performance of stress-dependent nonuniform aperture in complex fracture networks. The crucial impact of nonuniform fracture aperture and averaging techniques are highlighted through comparison with the uniform fracture aperture.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Alvarez, J. O., Schechter, D. S. 2015. Wettability Alteration and Spontaneous Imbibition in Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs by Surfactant Additives. Presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Quito, Ecuador, 18-20 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/177057-MS.
Cipolla, C. L., Fitzpatrick, T., Williams, M. J.. 2011. Seismic-to-Simulation for Unconventional Reservoir Development. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Characterisation and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 9–11 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146876-MS.
Cipolla, C. L., Warpinski, N. R., Mayerhofer, M. J. 2008. Hydraulic Fracture Complexity: Diagnosis, Remediation, and Explotation. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia 2008/1/1/. 10.2118/115771-MS.
Fisher, M. K., Wright, C. A., Davidson, B. M.. 2005. Integrating Fracture Mapping Technologies to Improve Stimulations in the Barnett Shale. SPE Production & Facilities 20 (02):85-93. 10.2118/77441-PA.
Gamboa, E., Sun, J., Schechter, D. S. 2016. Reducing Uncertainties of Fracture Characterization on Production Performance by Incorporating Microseismic and Core Analysis Data. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Hydraulic Fracturing Conference held in, Beijing, China, 24–26 August. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/181785-MS.
Han, J., Hurt, R., Sookprasong, A. 2015. Stress Field Change Due to Reservoir Depletion and Its Impact on Refrac Treatment Design and Srv in Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 20-22 July. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/178496-MS.
Han, J., Yang, J., Sookprasong, A.. 2015. Numerical Study of Fracture Cleanup Effects and Optimization of Post-Fracture Production. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary, 3-5 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/174201-MS.
Jiang, J., Younis, R. M. 2015. Numerical Study of Complex Fracture Geometries for Unconventional Gas Reservoirs Using a Discrete Fracture-Matrix Model. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 26:1174-1186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2015.08.013.
Kam, D., Han, J., Datta-Gupta, A. 2015. Streamline-Based Rapid History Matching of Bottomhole Pressure and Three-Phase Production Data. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 11-13 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/179549-MS.
Karimi-Fard, M., Durlofsky, L. J., Aziz, K. 2003. An Efficient Discrete Fracture Model Applicable for General Purpose Reservoir Simulators. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, Texas, 3-5 February. 79699. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/79699-ms.
Li, H., Zou, Y., Valko, P. P.. 2016. Hydraulic Fracture Height Predictions in Laminated Shale Formations Using Finite Element Discrete Element Method. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 9-11 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/179129-MS.
Li, H., Zou, Y. S., Ehlig-Economides, C. A.. 2016. Prediction of Fracture Initiation Pressure and Fracture Geometries in Elastic Isotropic and Anisotropic Formations. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering:1-13. 10.1007/s00603-016-1002-4.
Muralidharan, V., Schechter, D. S., Chakravarthy, D.. 2004. Investigating Fracture Aperture Distributions under Various Stress Conditions Using X-Ray Ct Scanner. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 8–10 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2004-230.
Sun, J., Schechter, D. S. 2015b. Optimization-Based Unstructured Meshing Algorithms for Simulation of Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs with Variable Distribution of Fracture Aperture, Spacing, Length and Strike. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering 18 (04):463–480. SPE-170703-PA.
Sun, J., Schechter, D. S. 2015c. Sensitivity Analysis of Unstructured Meshing Parameters on Production Forecast of Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Wells. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 9-12 November. SPE-177480-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/177480-MS.
Sun, J., Zou, A., Sotelo, E.. 2016. Numerical Simulation of Co2 Huff-N-Puff in Complex Fracture Networks of Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 31:481–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.03.032.
Watanabe, S., Han, J., Datta-Gupta, A.. 2013. Streamline-Based Time Lapse Seismic Data Integration Incorporating Pressure and Saturation Effects. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 30 September-2 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166395-MS.
Williams-Stroud, S. 2008. Using Microseismic Events to Constrain Fracture Network Models and Implications for Generating Fracture Flow Properties for Reservoir Simulation. Presented at the SPE Shale Gas Production Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, USA 16-18 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119895-MS.
Williams-Stroud, S., Ozgen, C., Billingsley, R. L. 2013. Microseismicity-Constrained Discrete Fracture Network Models for Stimulated Reservoir Simulation. Geophysics 78 (1):B37-B47. 10.1190/geo2011-0061.1.
Yu, X., Rutledge, J. T., Leaney, S. W.. 2016. Discrete-Fracture-Network Generation from Microseismic Data by Use of Moment-Tensor- and Event-Location-Constrained Hough Transforms. SPE Journal 21 (01):221–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168582-PA.